[American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline update on chemotherapy for stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer].
ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to provide updated recommendations for the treatment of patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer. A literature search identified relevant randomized trials published since 2002. The scope of the guideline was narrowed to chemotherapy and biologic therapy. An Update Committee reviewed the literature and made updated recommendations. One hundred sixty-two publications met the inclusion criteria. Recommendations were based on treatment strategies that improve overall survival. Treatments that improve only progression-free survival prompted scrutiny of toxicity and quality of life. For first-line therapy in patients with performance status of 0 or 1, a platinum-based two-drug combination of cytotoxic drugs is recommended. Nonplatinum cytotoxic doublets are acceptable for patients with contraindications to platinum therapy. For patients with performance status of 2, a single cytotoxic drug is sufficient. Stop first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy at disease progression or after four cycles in patients who are not responding to treatment. Stop two-drug cytotoxic chemotherapy at six cycles even in patients who are responding to therapy. The first-line use of gefitinib may be recommended for patients with known epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation; for negative or unknown EGFR mutation status, cytotoxic chemotherapy is preferred. Bevacizumab is recommended with carboplatin-paclitaxel, except for patients with certain clinical characteristics. Cetuximab is recommended with cisplatin-vinorelbine for patients with EGFR-positive tumors by immunohistochemistry. Docetaxel, erlotinib, gefitinib, or pemetrexed is recommended as second-line therapy. Erlotinib is recommended as third-line therapy for patients who have not received prior erlotinib or gefitinib. Data are insufficient to recommend the routine third-line use of cytotoxic drugs. Data are insufficient to recommend routine use of molecular markers to select chemotherapy.
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ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status is crucial in treatment selection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients; however, the detection materials' availability remains challenging in clinical practice. In this study, we collected surgical resection tissues, lymph node biopsy, and cytological samples for EGFR mutation testing and investigated the associations between gene mutation and clinical characteristics. Two hundred and seventy-six NSCLC adenocarcinoma specimens were collected, and highly sensitive amplification refractory mutation system method was implemented for EGFR mutation detection, with clinicopathologic characteristics involved in the final analysis. In the total of 276 samples, 96% (265/276) of tumors obtained evaluable EGFR mutation status, the frequency of mutation was 55.8% (148/265) in all specimens, and three different type samples shared a comparable successful testing rate: 97.4% (38/39) in surgical tumor tissues, 100% (108/108) in lymph node biopsy samples, and 92.2% (119/129) in cytological samples. EGFR mutation was significantly associated with sex, smoking history, lymph node metastasis status (N stage), primary tumor size, testing tissues origin, and sample type (P < .05). Multivariate analysis reconfirmed that smoking history and primary tumor size shared significant correlation with EGFR mutation after adjustment. Both lymph node biopsy and cytological samples were suitable surrogates for EGFR mutation detection in NSCLC compared with tumor tissues, gene status should be detected widely considering the high EGFR mutation rate, and nonsmoking history together with smaller primary tumor size was an independent indicator of EGFR mutation status. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Translational oncology 12/2014; 7(6):795-9. DOI:10.1016/j.tranon.2014.10.008 · 3.40 Impact Factor
Advances in Lung Cancer 01/2013; 02(03):55-61. DOI:10.4236/alc.2013.23007
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are associated with a favorable clinical response to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We present here, a new method for the rapid detection of the two most common EGFR mutations (delE746-A750 and L858R) from clinical samples. The methodology involves the combination of newly designed mutation-specific primers and a novel real-time PCR machine with an innovative thermo-control mechanism that enables ultrarapid PCR. We evaluated this method using a cell mixture composed of various ratios of lung cancer cells harboring mutated or wild-type EGFR, lung cancer tissues obtained by surgery, and a cytology sample obtained by bronchoscopy from a lung cancer patient. In the cell mixture analysis, our method detected 0.1% of cells with delE746-A750 and 1% of cells with L858R among cells with wild-type EGFR. In 143 lung cancer tissues, the result of this assay was concordant with those of direct sequencing in 138 samples. The five samples with discordant results were tested using a PCR-Invader assay and the result matched those of our method at 100%. We also successfully detected EGFR mutations in the lavage obtained from a lung cancer patient. The turnaround time for this method was <10 min, and all steps could be accomplished in <50 min after sample collection. Thus, our novel PCR method offers a rapid, simple, and less expensive test for EGFR mutations and can be applied as a point-of-care diagnostic test.Oncology Reports 01/2015; 33(3). DOI:10.3892/or.2015.3716 · 2.19 Impact Factor