Immunoregulatory roles for fc receptor-like molecules.
ABSTRACT Fc receptor-like (FCRL) molecules comprise a family of imunoregulatory transmembrane proteins that are preferentially, but not exclusively expressed on B lineage cells. A strong regulatory potential on B cell activation has been characterized for the different FCRL proteins, but their biological roles are just beginning to be elucidated. We review recent advances in the understanding of FCRL1-6 expression and function, and indicate their potential roles in the pathogenesis of immunodeficiencies, lymphoid malignancies and autoimmune diseases.
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ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of CD4(+) T cell populations leads to intestinal inflammation, but the regional distribution of these populations throughout the intestinal tract in healthy individuals remains unclear. Here, we show that T(H)17, T(H)22 and T(Reg) cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum compared to the terminal ileum and sigmoid colon, whereas T(H)1 and T(H)2 cells do not significantly vary by location. Transcriptional profiling analysis of paired pinch biopsies from different regions of the intestine identified significant differences in the metabolic state of the terminal ileum, cecum, and sigmoid colon. An increased proportion of T(H)17 cells was positively associated with expression of resistin (RETN) and negatively associated with expression of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1). These results suggest that CD4(+) T helper cells that are important in maintaining mucosal barrier function may be enriched in the cecum as a result of metabolic differences of the surrounding microenvironment.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e41373. · 4.09 Impact Factor