Correlation of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viral load with disease severity and prolonged viral shedding in children.
ABSTRACT Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus causes severe illness, including pneumonia, which leads to hospitalization and even death. To characterize the kinetic changes in viral load and identify factors of influence, we analyzed variables that could potentially influence the viral shedding time in a hospital-based cohort of 1,052 patients. Viral load was inversely correlated with number of days after the onset of fever and was maintained at a high level over the first 3 days. Patients with pneumonia had higher viral loads than those with bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infection. Median viral shedding time after the onset of symptoms was 9 days. Patients <13 years of age had a longer median viral shedding time than those >or=13 years of age (11 days vs. 7 days). These results suggest that younger children may require a longer isolation period and that patients with pneumonia may require treatment that is more aggressive than standard therapy for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.
Article: Molecular signature of clinical severity in recovering patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), a recent epidemic human disease, is caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV). First reported in Asia, SARS quickly spread worldwide through international travelling. As of July 2003, the World Health Organization reported a total of 8,437 people afflicted with SARS with a 9.6% mortality rate. Although immunopathological damages may account for the severity of respiratory distress, little is known about how the genome-wide gene expression of the host changes under the attack of SARS-CoV. Based on changes in gene expression of peripheral blood, we identified 52 signature genes that accurately discriminated acute SARS patients from non-SARS controls. While a general suppression of gene expression predominated in SARS-infected blood, several genes including those involved in innate immunity, such as defensins and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, were upregulated. Instead of employing clustering methods, we ranked the severity of recovering SARS patients by generalized associate plots (GAP) according to the expression profiles of 52 signature genes. Through this method, we discovered a smooth transition pattern of severity from normal controls to acute SARS patients. The rank of SARS severity was significantly correlated with the recovery period (in days) and with the clinical pulmonary infection score. The use of the GAP approach has proved useful in analyzing the complexity and continuity of biological systems. The severity rank derived from the global expression profile of significantly regulated genes in patients may be useful for further elucidating the pathophysiology of their disease.BMC Genomics 02/2005; 6:132. · 4.07 Impact Factor
Article: Altered p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase expression in different leukocytes with increment of immunosuppressive mediators in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has spread to a global pandemic, especially in Asia. The transmission route of SARS has been clarified, but the immunopathogenesis of SARS is unclear. In an age-matched case-control design, we studied immune parameters in 15 SARS patients who were previously healthy. Plasma was harvested for detection of virus load, cytokines, and nitrite/nitrate levels, and blood leukocytes were subjected to flow cytometric analysis of intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in different leukocytes. Patients with SARS had significantly higher IL-8 levels (p = 0.016) in early stage, and higher IL-2 levels (p = 0.039) in late stage than normal controls. Blood TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10, and nitrite/nitrate levels were not significantly elevated. In contrast, TGF-beta and PGE(2) levels were significantly elevated in SARS patients. Five of the 15 SARS patients had detectable coronaviruses in blood, but patients with detectable and undetectable viremia had no different profiles of immune mediators. Flow cytometric analysis of MAPKs activation by phospho-p38 and phospho-p44/42 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) expression showed that augmented p38 activation (p = 0.044) of CD14 monocytes associated with suppressed p38 activation (p = 0.033) of CD8 lymphocytes was found in SARS patients. These results suggest that regulation of TGF-beta and PGE(2) production and MAPKs activation in different leukocytes may be considered while developing therapeutics for the SARS treatment.The Journal of Immunology 07/2004; 172(12):7841-7. · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the spring of 2009, an outbreak of severe pneumonia was reported in conjunction with the concurrent isolation of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), widely known as swine flu, in Mexico. Influenza A (H1N1) subtype viruses have rarely predominated since the 1957 pandemic. The analysis of epidemic pneumonia in the absence of routine diagnostic tests can provide information about risk factors for severe disease from this virus and prospects for its control. From March 24 to April 29, 2009, a total of 2155 cases of severe pneumonia, involving 821 hospitalizations and 100 deaths, were reported to the Mexican Ministry of Health. During this period, of the 8817 nasopharyngeal specimens that were submitted to the National Epidemiological Reference Laboratory, 2582 were positive for S-OIV. We compared the age distribution of patients who were reported to have severe pneumonia with that during recent influenza epidemics to document an age shift in rates of death and illness. During the study period, 87% of deaths and 71% of cases of severe pneumonia involved patients between the ages of 5 and 59 years, as compared with average rates of 17% and 32%, respectively, in that age group during the referent periods. Features of this epidemic were similar to those of past influenza pandemics in that circulation of the new influenza virus was associated with an off-season wave of disease affecting a younger population. During the early phase of this influenza pandemic, there was a sudden increase in the rate of severe pneumonia and a shift in the age distribution of patients with such illness, which was reminiscent of past pandemics and suggested relative protection for persons who were exposed to H1N1 strains during childhood before the 1957 pandemic. If resources or vaccine supplies are limited, these findings suggest a rationale for focusing prevention efforts on younger populations.New England Journal of Medicine 07/2009; 361(7):674-9. · 53.30 Impact Factor