Preliminary data on the association between waist circumference and insulin resistance in children without a previous diagnosis.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present work was to study the association between different anthropometric parameters and insulin resistance (IR) in Spanish schoolchildren without a previous diagnosis. A total of 443 Spanish schoolchildren (9-11 years of age) were studied in this cross-sectional study. The anthropometric measurements collected were weight, height, body circumferences and skinfolds. Body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio, percentage body fat and fat-free body mass were determined. Overnight-fasted blood lipids, insulin and glucose levels were analysed, and estimation of IR, taking into account the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), was calculated. The children with IR had higher serum triglycerides and insulin levels, were heavier and taller, and had a higher BMI, a larger waist circumference, a larger hip circumference, a larger waist/hip ratio and thicker bicipital and tricipital skinfolds than those who did not have IR. Age, sex, BMI and waist circumference explained 32.0% of the variance in the HOMA values; only sex, triglycerides and waist circumference independently influenced this variable. A 1-cm increase in waist circumference was associated with approximately a 3.8% increase in the mean HOMA value. The children with a waist circumference of over the p90 for their age and sex were at greater risk of showing IR as measured by the HOMA: odds ratio = 6.94 (2.01-23.91; P < 0.001). In conclusion, according to these results, waist circumference is the best anthropometric parameter associated with IR in children, and those with a waist circumference of over the p90 for their age and sex would appear to be at particular risk.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of obesity over time in the same individuals comparing body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR). Five year longitudinal repeated measures study (2005-2010). Children were aged 11-12 (Y7) years at baseline and measurements were repeated at age 13-14 (Y9) years and 15-16 (Y11) years. WC and BMI measurements were carried out by the same person over the five years and raw values were expressed as standard deviation scores (sBMI and sWC) against the growth reference used for British children. Mean sWC measurements were higher than mean sBMI measurements for both sexes and at all assessment occasions and sWC measurements were consistently high in girls compared to boys. Y7 sWC = 0.792 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.675-0.908], Y9 sWC = 0.818 (95%CI 0.709-0.928), Y11 sWC = 0.943 (95%CI 0.827-1.06) for boys; Y7 sWC = 0.843 (0.697-0.989), Y9 sWC = 1.52 (95%CI 1.38-0.67), Y11 sWC = 1.89 (95%CI 1.79-2.04) for girls. Y7 sBMI = 0.445 (95%CI 0.315-0.575), Y9 sBMI = 0.314 (95%CI 0.189-0.438), Y11 sBMI = 0.196 (95%CI 0.054-0.337) for boys; Y7 sBMI = 0.353 (0.227-0.479), Y9 sBMI = 0.343 (95%CI 0.208-0.478), Y11 sBMI = 0.256 (95%CI 0.102-0.409) for girls. The estimated prevalence of obesity defined by BMI decreased in boys (18%, 12% and 10% in Y 7, 9 and 11 respectively) and girls (14%, 15% and 11% in Y 7, 9 and 11). In contrast, the prevalence estimated by WC increased sharply (boys; 13%, 19% and 23%; girls, 20%, 46% and 60%). Central adiposity, measured by WC is increasing alongside a stabilization in BMI. Children appear to be getting fatter and the additional adiposity is being stored centrally which is not detected by BMI. These substantial increases in WC are a serious concern, especially in girls.Public health 11/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background:Waist circumference-length ratio (WLR) and ponderal index (PI) appear to be useful markers of visceral and total adiposity, respectively. However, there are no normative birth data across the full range of gestational ages.Methods:This was a retrospective cohort study of 500 preterm and 1426 full term infant born in 1998 and 2008 at three military hospitals. Percentile growth curves for WLR and PI were calculated. There were no sex differences and results were combined to obtain values from 26-42 weeks gestation.Results:Between 26 and 42 weeks, median birth WLR increased from 0.55 to 0.62, and median PI increased from 21.1 to 25.6. The adjusted mean WLR at birth among infants born <34 weeks increased from 0.55 in 1998 to 0.58 in 2008 (p=0.048), suggesting early preterm infants in 2008 had greater abdominal adiposity than in 1998.Conclusion:We report normative birth data for WLR and PI in preterm and full term infants by gestational age and sex. WLR and PI may be useful as clinical markers of visceral and overall adiposity. In conjunction with other anthropometric measures, WLR and PI may be useful to monitor postnatal nutrition and growth and assess risk for later obesity and cardiometabolic disorders.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.109.Pediatric Research 06/2013; · 2.67 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were: (1) to analyze whether mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) could be used to determine overweight and obese children and to propose the optimal cutoffs of MUAC in Han children aged 7-12 years; and (2) to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of the arm-to-height ratio (AHtR) and propose the optimal cutoffs of AHtR for identifying overweight and obesity. In 2011, anthropometric measurements were assessed in a cross-sectional, population-based study of 2847 Han children aged 7-12 years. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the 2004 Group of China Obesity Task Force definition. The AHtR was calculated as arm circumference/height. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to assess the accuracy of MUAC and AHtR as diagnostic tests for elevated body mass index (BMI; defined as BMI ≥ 85(th) percentiles). The accuracy levels of MUAC for identifying elevated BMI [as assessed by area under the curve (AUC)] were over 0.85 (AUC: approximately 0.934-0.975) in both genders and across all age groups. The MUAC cutoff values for elevated BMI were calculated to be approximately 18.9-23.4 cm in boys and girls. The accuracy levels of AHtR for identifying elevated BMI (as assessed by AUC) were also over 0.85 (AUC: 0.956 in boys and 0.935 in girls). The AHtR cutoff values for elevated BMI were calculated to be 0.15 in boys and girls. This study demonstrates that MUAC and AHtR are simple, inexpensive, and accurate measurements that may be used to identify overweight and obese Han children. Compared with MUAC, AHtR is a nonage-dependent index with higher applicability to screen for overweight and obese children.Pediatrics & Neonatology 06/2013; · 0.93 Impact Factor