Preliminary data on the association between waist circumference and insulin resistance in children without a previous diagnosis.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present work was to study the association between different anthropometric parameters and insulin resistance (IR) in Spanish schoolchildren without a previous diagnosis. A total of 443 Spanish schoolchildren (9-11 years of age) were studied in this cross-sectional study. The anthropometric measurements collected were weight, height, body circumferences and skinfolds. Body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio, percentage body fat and fat-free body mass were determined. Overnight-fasted blood lipids, insulin and glucose levels were analysed, and estimation of IR, taking into account the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), was calculated. The children with IR had higher serum triglycerides and insulin levels, were heavier and taller, and had a higher BMI, a larger waist circumference, a larger hip circumference, a larger waist/hip ratio and thicker bicipital and tricipital skinfolds than those who did not have IR. Age, sex, BMI and waist circumference explained 32.0% of the variance in the HOMA values; only sex, triglycerides and waist circumference independently influenced this variable. A 1-cm increase in waist circumference was associated with approximately a 3.8% increase in the mean HOMA value. The children with a waist circumference of over the p90 for their age and sex were at greater risk of showing IR as measured by the HOMA: odds ratio = 6.94 (2.01-23.91; P < 0.001). In conclusion, according to these results, waist circumference is the best anthropometric parameter associated with IR in children, and those with a waist circumference of over the p90 for their age and sex would appear to be at particular risk.
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ABSTRACT: Our aim was to examine the association between markers of insulin resistance and: (1) body fat and waist circumference, taking into account cardiorespiratory fitness in school-aged children; and (2) cardiorespiratory fitness at differing levels of body fat and waist circumference. This was a cross-sectional study of 873 children aged 9.6 +/- 0.4 years from Estonia and Sweden. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Body fat was expressed as the sum of five skinfold thicknesses. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated by a maximal cycle-ergometer test. The studied markers of insulin resistance were fasting insulin and glucose, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). HOMA and fasting insulin were positively associated with body fat and waist circumference after adjusting for cardiorespiratory fitness, age, pubertal status and study location. HOMA and fasting insulin were negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in children in the third (highest) tertile of body fat and waist circumference after controlling for sex, age, pubertal status and study location. Fasting glucose was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in children in the third (highest) tertile of waist circumference, but it was not associated when body fat was taken into account. In school-aged children, HOMA and fasting insulin are significantly associated with body fat and waist circumference. In addition, cardiorespiratory fitness explains a significant proportion of the HOMA and fasting insulin variance in those children with high levels of body fat and waist circumference. The findings suggest that the deleterious consequences ascribed to high fatness could be counteracted by having high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.Diabetologia 08/2007; 50(7):1401-8. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to set forth an age-dependent percentile for waist circumference of Japanese children and to compare the reference with data from other countries. We utilized the 1992-1994 cross-sectional national survey data on waist circumference as measured at two benchmark sites in 10,614 Japanese children (5,851 boys, 4,763 girls) aged 6.0-18.0 years for constructing the reference by the LMS method. Japanese children had smaller waist circumference percentile values as compared to those of Dutch and US children, but had comparable or larger percentile values as compared to those of UK children. We suspect that the observed ethnic differences may be in part due to the differences in benchmark in waist circumference measurements in each country. We present for the first time an age-dependent percentile for waist circumference for Japanese children. It is mandatory to standardize a benchmark site for waist circumference for more meaningful international comparison.European Journal of Pediatrics 08/2007; 166(7):655-61. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hotamisligil GS (Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA). The role of TNF and TNF receptors in obesity and insulin resistance. (Minisymposium: Genes & Obesity). J Intern Med 1999; 245: 621–625.Insulin resistance, a smaller than expected response to a given dose of insulin, is associated with many common diseases including, ageing, polycystic ovarian disease, syndrome X, cancer, infections, trauma and, most significantly, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The biochemical basis of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes has been the subject of many studies. Earlier studies have indicated that quantitative regulation of the insulin sensitive glucose transporters (Glut-4) and insulin receptors themselves may contribute to this disorder, however, these two factors are probably inadequate to explain the extent of insulin resistance. This point also became apparent by the development of only mild hyperinsulinaemia in mice with a targeted mutation in the Glut-4 gene. Studies on postreceptor defects in type 2 diabetes has recently focused on the intrinsic catalytic activity of the insulin receptor and downstream signalling events. A reduction in tyrosine phosphorylation of both the insulin receptor (IR) and the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) has been noted in both animal and human type 2 diabetes. Importantly, this appears to occur in all of the major insulin-sensitive tissues, namely the muscle, fat and liver. It is now clear that decreased signalling capacity of the insulin receptor is an important component of this disease. I will review some of the potential mechanisms underlying this deficiency.Journal of Internal Medicine 05/1999; 245(6):621 - 625. · 6.46 Impact Factor