A previously unrecognized promoter of LMO2 forms part of a transcriptional regulatory circuit mediating LMO2 expression in a subset of T-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients.
ABSTRACT The T-cell oncogene Lim-only 2 (LMO2) critically influences both normal and malignant haematopoiesis. LMO2 is not normally expressed in T cells, yet ectopic expression is seen in the majority of T-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) patients with specific translocations involving LMO2 in only a subset of these patients. Ectopic lmo2 expression in thymocytes of transgenic mice causes T-ALL, and retroviral vector integration into the LMO2 locus was implicated in the development of clonal T-cell disease in patients undergoing gene therapy. Using array-based chromatin immunoprecipitation, we now demonstrate that in contrast to B-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, human T-ALL samples largely use promoter elements with little influence from distal enhancers. Active LMO2 promoter elements in T-ALL included a previously unrecognized third promoter, which we demonstrate to be active in cell lines, primary T-ALL patients and transgenic mice. The ETS factors ERG and FLI1 previously implicated in lmo2-dependent mouse models of T-ALL bind to the novel LMO2 promoter in human T-ALL samples, while in return LMO2 binds to blood stem/progenitor enhancers in the FLI1 and ERG gene loci. Moreover, LMO2, ERG and FLI1 all regulate the +1 enhancer of HHEX/PRH, which was recently implicated as a key mediator of early progenitor expansion in LMO2-driven T-ALL. Our data therefore suggest that a self-sustaining triad of LMO2/ERG/FLI1 stabilizes the expression of important mediators of the leukaemic phenotype such as HHEX/PRH.
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ABSTRACT: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from 19 children, including 7 who remain in first complete remission (CR1), were engrafted into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. High-level infiltration of bone marrow, spleen, and liver was observed, with variable infiltration of other organs. The immunophenotypes of xenografts were essentially unaltered compared with the original patient sample. In addition, sequencing of the entire p53 coding region revealed no mutations in 14 of 14 xenografts (10 from patients at diagnosis and 4 at relapse). Cells harvested from the spleens of engrafted mice readily transferred the leukemia to secondary and tertiary recipients. To correlate biologic characteristics of xenografts with clinical and prognostic features of the patients, the rates at which individual leukemia samples engrafted in NOD/SCID mice were analyzed. Differences in biologic correlates were encountered depending on stage of disease: a direct correlation was observed between the rate of engraftment and length of CR1 for samples harvested at relapse (r = 0.96; P =.002), but not diagnosis (r = 0.38; P =.40). In contrast, the in vivo responses of 6 xenografts to vincristine showed a direct correlation (r = 0.96; P =.002) between the length of CR1 and the rate at which the leukemia cell population recovered following vincristine treatment, regardless of whether the xenografts were derived from patients at diagnosis or relapse. This study supports previous findings that the NOD/SCID model of childhood ALL provides an accurate representation of the human disease and indicates that it may be of value to predict relapse and design alternative treatment strategies in a patient-specific manner.Blood 07/2002; 99(11):4100-8. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transcriptional control has been identified as a key mechanism regulating the formation and subsequent behavior of hematopoietic stem cells. We have used a comparative genomics approach to identify transcriptional regulatory elements of the LMO2 gene, a transcriptional cofactor originally identified through its involvement in T-cell leukemia and subsequently shown to be critical for normal hematopoietic and endothelial development. Of the 2 previously characterized LMO2 promoters, the second (proximal) promoter was highly conserved in vertebrates ranging from mammals to fish. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) expression analysis identified this promoter as the predominant source of transcription in hematopoietic tissue. Transient and stable transfections indicated that the proximal promoter was active in hematopoietic progenitor and endothelial cell lines and this activity was shown to depend on 3 conserved Ets sites that were bound in vivo by E74-like factor 1 (Elf1), Friend leukemia integration 1 (Fli1), and erythroblastosis virus oncogene homolog E twenty-six-1 (Ets1). Finally, transgenic analysis demonstrated that the LMO2 proximal promoter is sufficient for expression in endothelial cells in vivo. No hematopoietic expression was observed, indicating that additional enhancers are required to mediate transcription from the proximal promoter in hematopoietic cells. Together, these results suggest that the conserved proximal promoter is central to LMO2 transcription in hematopoietic and endothelial cells, where it is regulated by Ets factors.Blood 11/2005; 106(8):2680-7. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A chromosomal translocation in a T-cell leukemia involving the short arm of human chromosome 11 at band 11p15 disrupts the rhombotin gene. This gene encodes a protein with duplicated cysteine-rich regions called LIM domains, which show homology to zinc-binding proteins and to iron-sulfur centers of ferredoxins. Two homologues of the rhombotin gene have now been isolated. One of these, designated Rhom-2, is located on human chromosome 11 at band 11p13, where a cluster of T-cell leukemia-specific translocations occur; all translocation breakpoints at 11p13 are upstream of the Rhom-2 gene. Human and mouse Rhom-2 are highly conserved and, like rhombotin, encode two tandem cysteine-rich LIM domains. Rhom-2 mRNA is expressed in early mouse development in central nervous system, lung, kidney, liver, and spleen but only very low levels occur in thymus. The other gene, designated Rhom-3, is not on chromosome 11 but also retains homology to the LIM domain of rhombotin. Since the Rhom-2 gene is such a common site of chromosomal damage in T-cell tumors, the consistency of translocations near the rhombotin gene was further examined. A second translocation adjacent to rhombotin was found and at the same position as in the previous example. Therefore, chromosome bands 11p15 (rhombotin) and 11p13 (Rhom-2) are consistent sites of chromosome translocation in T-cell leukemia, with the 11p15 target more rarely involved. The results define the rhombotin gene family as a class of T-cell oncogenes with duplicated cysteine-rich LIM domains.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/1991; 88(10):4367-71. · 9.74 Impact Factor