Clinical outcome in diagnostically ambiguous foci of 'gland crowding' in the endometrium.

Division of Women's and Perinatal Pathology, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
Modern Pathology (Impact Factor: 6.36). 11/2010; 23(11):1486-91. DOI: 10.1038/modpathol.2010.140
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Premalignant endometrial lesions (endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN)) are clonal neoplasms that arise focally and can be diagnosed using specific criteria: (1) area of glands exceeds that of stroma (glands/stroma >1), (2) nuclear and/or cytoplasmic features of epithelial cells differ between architecturally abnormal glands and normal background glands, and (3) maximum linear dimension exceeds 1 mm. However, localized groups of crowded endometrial glands may be encountered that do not fulfill all of the criteria for EIN, are interpreted as ambiguous, and are reported as 'focal gland crowding'. We conducted a retrospective study of gland crowding using a free-text index search for this term in our pathology files. The age of the patients, number of subsequent specimens, the duration, and the outcome of the follow-ups were recorded. Of the 71,579 consecutive gynecological pathology reports, 206 (0.3%) 'gland crowding' cases were identified, in which 69% (143/206) had follow-up sampling. Of these, 33 (23%) had an outcome diagnosis of EIN (27 cases; 19%) or carcinoma (6 cases; 4%). Included were 18 cases (55%) diagnosed within the first year and presumed concurrent, and an additional 15 (45%) discovered after 1 year and interpreted as a later phase of disease or new events. The term 'crowded glands' is a highly significant finding that carries a substantial risk of an outcome of EIN and occasionally malignancy. It underscores the importance of follow-up when some but not all of the criteria for EIN are encountered in the appropriate clinical setting.

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    Cytopathology 10/2013; 25(2). DOI:10.1111/cyt.12095 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context.-Developed in conjunction with molecular and progression data, the sequence classification schema for endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN)/benign hyperplasia (BH) provides an easy to adopt and reproducible method for classification of endometrial biopsies. Objective.-To review current data supporting the use of BH/EIN to classify endometrial biopsies, and to discuss the hormone-driven endometrial sequence from anovulation/disordered proliferative endometrium through BH and EIN and their diagnostic difficulty. Data Sources.-A comprehensive review of EIN literature based on literature indexed by PubMed (National Library of Medicine) and Google Scholar. Conclusions.-The BH/EIN schema is gaining wider acceptance among pathologist and clinicians. The research leading to the EIN criteria is based on molecular and progression data. The BH/EIN schema has better reproducibility among pathologists, is intuitively easy to use, and requires understanding of endometrial physiology and neoplasia.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 04/2014; 138(4):484-91. DOI:10.5858/arpa.2012-0709-RA · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) requires learning new criteria. Two trainees rendered diagnoses based on biopsy findings, and then measured the effect of reviewing PAX2 on their interpretation. Fifty-two endometrial biopsy specimens diagnosed as having EIN were evaluated using EIN criteria. Background endometrial pattern, altered differentiation, and any features complicating diagnosis were noted. PAX2 stains were scored as confusing, helpful, or noncontributory. Fifty-two cases generated 104 passes; 82% were rediagnosed as EIN. The diagnosis was complicated because of altered differentiation (14%), EIN and background separation (13%), large lesions lacking background (11%), and secretory background (8%). PAX2 was most helpful in cases with secretory backgrounds and when EIN lacked adjacent normal tissue, and most confusing when scoring was ambiguous (14%). The diagnosis of EIN can be difficult when: (1) the lesion cannot be easily compared with background; (2) there is a confounding process; and (3) gland differentiation is altered. PAX2 can be of assistance in delimiting EIN lesions.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 11/2012; 138(5):678-84. DOI:10.1309/AJCP8OMLT7KDWLMF · 3.01 Impact Factor


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