Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are expected to provide revolutionary therapeutic applications and drug discovery technologies. In order for this to be achieved a reproducible, defined animal component free culture system is required for the scale-up production of undifferentiated hESC. In this work we have investigated the applicability of a recombinantly produced domain of human vitronectin as an extracellular matrix alternative to the common standards Geltrex or Matrigel. In addition we have validated an ascorbate free media capable of supporting CD30(low) populations of hESC through a multi-factorial analysis of bFGF and Activin A. The recombinant vitronectin domain combined with the ascorbate free media were capable of supporting 3 cell lines, MEL1, MEL2 and hES3 for 10 or more passages while maintaining hESC pluripotency markers and differentiation capacity. The culture method outlined here provides a platform for future investigation into growth factor and extracellular matrix effects on hESC maintenance prior to bioreactor scale-up.
"It has been reported that fibronectin supports the maintenance of hESCs via α5β1 integrin , and Ras/MEK/MAPK signaling and kinases were stimulated via integrin ligation. Several groups have reported that vitronectin and one of its variants (VTN-NC) supports the maintenance of hESCs via αVβ5 integrin , , . Another group has reported that the adhesion of hESCs and hiPSCs to laminin-511 is maintained via integrin α6β1, and Akt/ERK and kinases interacting with FAK are highly phosphorylated in human pluripotent stem cells –. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human Embryonic Stem cells (hESCs) and human induced Pluripotent Stem cells (hiPSCs) are commonly maintained on inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblast as feeder cells in medium supplemented with FBS or proprietary replacements. Use of culture medium containing undefined or unknown components has limited the development of applications for pluripotent cells because of the relative lack of knowledge regarding cell responses to differentiating growth factors. In addition, there is no consensus as to the optimal formulation, or the nature of the cytokine requirements of the cells to promote their self-renewal and inhibit their differentiation. In this study, we successfully generated hiPSCs from human dental pulp cells (DPCs) using Yamanaka's factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) with retroviral vectors in serum- and feeder-free defined culture conditions. These hiPSCs retained the property of self-renewal as evaluated by the expression of self-renewal marker genes and proteins, morphology, cell growth rates, and pluripotency evaluated by differentiation into derivatives of all three primary germ layers in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that TGF-β1 increased the expression levels of pluripotency markers in a dose-dependent manner. However, increasing doses of TGF-β1 suppressed the growth rate of hiPSCs cultured under the defined conditions. Furthermore, over short time periods the hiPSCs cultured in hESF9 or hESF9T exhibited similar morphology, but hiPSCs maintained in hESF9 could not survive beyond 30 passages. This result clearly confirmed that hiPSCs cultured in hESF9 medium absolutely required TGF-β1 to maintain pluripotency. This simple serum-free adherent monoculture system will allow us to elucidate the cell responses to growth factors under defined conditions and can eliminate the risk might be brought by undefined pathogens.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87151. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0087151 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivatives show promise as viable cell therapy options for multiple disorders in different tissues. Recent advances in stem cell biology have lead to the reliable production and detailed molecular characterisation of a range of cell-types. However, the role of mitochondria during differentiation has yet to be fully elucidated. Mitochondria mediate a cells response to altered energy requirements (e.g. cardiomyocyte contraction) and, as such, the mitochondrial phenotype is likely to change during the dynamic process of hESC differentiation. We demonstrate that manipulating mitochondrial biogenesis alters mesendoderm commitment. To investigate mitochondrial localisation during early lineage specification of hESCs we developed a mitochondrial reporter line, KMEL2, in which sequences encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are targeted to the mitochondria. Differentiation of KMEL2 lines into the three germ layers showed that the mitochondria in these differentiated progeny are GFP positive. Therefore, KMEL2 hESCs facilitate the study of mitochondria in a range of cell types and, importantly, permit real-time analysis of mitochondria via the GFP tag.
PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e52214. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0052214 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"For example, to eliminate the need for mouse feeder layer cells, human feeder layer cells have been established to support the long-term self-renewal of hESCs [18-21]. Recent studies have also shown that the feeder layer can be replaced with purified human extracellular matrix proteins, such as human recombinant laminin-511 and vitronectin, to support the long-term culture of hESCs [22-25]. In addition, the recent development of chemically defined medium with the addition of small molecules that can promote the self-renewal of hESCs greatly facilitates their clinical development [26-29]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can undergo unlimited self-renewal and are pluripotent, retaining the ability to differentiate into all cell types in the body. As a renewable source of various types of human cells, hESCs hold great therapeutic potential. Although significant advances have been achieved in defining the conditions needed to differentiate hESCs into various types of biologically active cells, many challenges remain in the clinical development of hESC-based cell therapy, such as the immune rejection of allogeneic hESC-derived cells by recipients. Breakthroughs in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which are reprogrammed from somatic cells with defined factors, raise the hope that autologous cells derived from patient-specific iPSCs can be transplanted without immune rejection. However, recent genomic studies have revealed epigenetic and genetic abnormalities associated with induced pluripotency, a risk of teratomas, and immunogenicity of some iPSC derivatives. These findings have raised safety concerns for iPSC-based therapy. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the genomic and functional stability of human pluripotent stem cells, current challenges to their clinical application and the progress that has been made to overcome these challenges.
Genome Medicine 06/2012; 4(6):55. DOI:10.1186/gm354 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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