Long term culture of human embryonic stem cells on recombinant vitronectin in ascorbate free media.
ABSTRACT Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are expected to provide revolutionary therapeutic applications and drug discovery technologies. In order for this to be achieved a reproducible, defined animal component free culture system is required for the scale-up production of undifferentiated hESC. In this work we have investigated the applicability of a recombinantly produced domain of human vitronectin as an extracellular matrix alternative to the common standards Geltrex or Matrigel. In addition we have validated an ascorbate free media capable of supporting CD30(low) populations of hESC through a multi-factorial analysis of bFGF and Activin A. The recombinant vitronectin domain combined with the ascorbate free media were capable of supporting 3 cell lines, MEL1, MEL2 and hES3 for 10 or more passages while maintaining hESC pluripotency markers and differentiation capacity. The culture method outlined here provides a platform for future investigation into growth factor and extracellular matrix effects on hESC maintenance prior to bioreactor scale-up.
- SourceAvailable from: Andrew L Laslett[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells, and those that drive their commitment into particular differentiation lineages, are poorly understood. In fact, even our knowledge of the phenotype of hESC is limited, because the immunological and molecular criteria presently used to define this phenotype describe the properties of a heterogeneous population of cells. We used a novel approach combining immunological and transcriptional analysis (immunotranscriptional profiling) to compare gene expression in hESC populations at very early stages of differentiation. Immunotranscriptional profiling enabled us to identify novel markers of stem cells and their differentiated progeny, as well as novel potential regulators of hESC commitment and differentiation. The data show clearly that genes associated with the pluripotent state are downregulated in a coordinated fashion, and that they are co-expressed with lineage specific transcription factors in a continuum during the early stages of stem cell differentiation. These findings, that show that maintenance of pluripotency and lineage commitment are dynamic, interactive processes in hESC cultures, have important practical implications for propagation and directed differentiation of these cells, and for the interpretation of mechanistic studies of hESC renewal and commitment. Since embryonic stem cells at defined stages of commitment can be isolated in large numbers by immunological means, they provide a powerful model for studying molecular genetics of stem cell commitment in the embryo.BMC Developmental Biology 02/2007; 7:12. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during long-term culture acquire chromosomal changes similar to those occurring in tumorigenesis. This was raised concerns about the progression from hESCs to malignant cells. This study aimed to investigate the changes in chromosomes, cell phenotype, and genes in culture-adapted hESCs to ascertain whether tumorigenic transformation occurred. By cytogenetic analysis we found progressive karyotypic changes from simple to complex in chHES-3, one of the hESC lines established in our laboratory, during a long-term suboptimal culture. We further compared chHES-3 cells at different karyotypic stages in cell surface markers, in vivo differentiation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and gene expression profiles. We found that the karyotypically aberrant chHES-3 had higher S-phase fraction in cell cycle distributions and antiapoptosis ability. In vivo differentiation of karyotypically normal chHES-3 resulted in relatively mature teratoma, whereas karyotypically aberrant chHES-3 formed immature teratoma (grade III), in which more primary neural epithelium was revealed by pathological analysis. The microarray analysis and real-time PCR results showed that some oncogenes were upregulated in karyotypically aberrant chHES-3 cells, whereas the genes related to differentiation were downregulated, and that Wnt signal pathway was activated. In conclusion, chHES-3 cells underwent deregulation of self-renewal and dysfunction of related genes in long-term culture adaptation, leading to malignant transformation.Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 09/2008; 47(8):665-79. · 3.55 Impact Factor
Article: Vitronectin.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vitronectin is a multifunctional glycoprotein present in blood and in the extracellular matrix. It binds glycosaminoglycans, collagen, plasminogen and the urokinase-receptor, and also stabilizes the inhibitory conformation of plasminogen activation inhibitor-1. By its localization in the extracellular matrix and its binding to plasminogen activation inhibitor-1, vitronectin can potentially regulate the proteolytic degradation of this matrix. In addition, vitronectin binds to complement, to heparin and to thrombin-antithrombin III complexes, implicating its participation in the immune response and in the regulation of clot formation. The biological functions of vitronectin can be modulated by proteolytic enzymes, and by exo- and ecto-protein kinases present in blood. Vitronectin contains an RGD sequence, through which it binds to the integrin receptor alpha v beta 3, and is involved in the cell attachment, spreading and migration. Antibodies against alpha v beta 3 or synthetic peptides containing an RGD sequence are now being tested as therapeutic agents in the treatment of human cancers, bone diseases (e.g. osteoporosis) and in pathological disorders which involve angiogenesis.The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 06/1999; 31(5):539-44. · 4.15 Impact Factor