Changes in muscle activation patterns and subjective low back pain ratings during prolonged standing in response to an exercise intervention.
ABSTRACT Low back pain (LBP) development has been associated with occupational standing. Increased hip and trunk muscle co-activation is considered to be predisposing for LBP development during standing in previously asymptomatic individuals. The purpose of this work was to investigate muscle activation and LBP responses to a prescribed exercise program. Pain-developing (PD) individuals were expected to have decreased LBP and muscle co-activation following exercise intervention.
Electromyography (EMG) data were recorded from trunk and hip muscle groups during 2-h of standing. An increase of >10mm on visual analog scale (VAS) during standing was threshold for PD categorization. Participants were assigned to progressive exercise program with weekly supervision or control (usual activity) for 4 weeks then re-tested.
Forty percent were categorized as PD on day 1, VAS=24.2 (±4.0)mm. PD exercisers (PDEX) had lower VAS scores (8.93±3.66 mm) than PD control (PDCON) (16.5±6.3 mm) on day 2 (p=0.007). Male PDEX had decreased gluteus medius co-activation levels (p<0.05) on day 2.
The exercise program proved beneficial in reducing LBP during standing. There were changes in muscle activation patterns previously associated with LBP. Predisposing factors for LBP during standing were shown to change positively with appropriate exercise intervention.
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ABSTRACT: With the recent attention to 'sitting disease', health practitioners and scientists are promoting standing in the workplace to decrease sedentary time, despite a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP) development during prolonged standing. The purpose of this study was to assess how a seated break inserted between bouts of prolonged standing would influence LBP development, posture and movement. A total of 20 participants stood for 45 minutes, sat for 15 minutes and repeated this sequence while lumbar and thoracic angles were measured, and LBP visual analogue scale reports were taken. Of the sample, 55% participants reported LBP in standing. A stand to sit ratio of 3:1 did not provide lasting recovery of LBP from standing and pain developers utilised a limited range of their lumbar spine angle and increased thoracic extension, resulting in static postures that caused tissue aggravation that was not resolved after 15 minutes of sitting. Prolonged standing in the workplace has the potential to result in LBP for some workers and alternate ways to reduce sedentary time should be investigated.Ergonomics 04/2014; 57(4):555-62. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Within the context of low back pain, the measurement of deep abdominal anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during rapid limb movement has received much interest. There is dispute about the association between APAs and back pain. Moreover, there is limited evidence examining compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) in back pain. This study examined the relationship between APAs and CPAs with pain reported in the low back during 2 h of prolonged standing. Twenty-six participants with no history of severe back pain performed 2-h prolonged standing. APAs and CPAs of the deep abdominal muscles (transverse abdominis/internal obliques) were measured by surface electromyography during rapid shoulder flexion and extension. APAs and CPAs measured pre-standing revealed symmetrical anticipatory activity, but an asymmetry between the different sides of the abdominal wall for CPAs. APAs and CPAs measured pre-standing were not associated with pain reported during standing. For the whole group, APA amplitudes were reduced post-standing during shoulder flexion (p = 0.005). Pain reported during standing was associated with the changes in APA amplitudes post-standing (rs = 0.43, p = 0.002). These findings support previous research using hypertonic saline injections to induce back pain that showed reduced APA amplitudes, and extends findings to suggest pain does not effect compensatory postural adjustments.Experimental Brain Research 07/2014; · 2.17 Impact Factor