Subsyndromal depressive symptoms after symptomatic recovery from mania are associated with delayed functional recovery.
ABSTRACT This study examined whether the presence of subsyndromal depressive symptoms predicted functional recovery after an acute manic episode.
Subjects with bipolar I disorder (according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV) who, at the time of symptomatic recovery from an acute manic or hypomanic episode, had a concomitant functional recovery (n = 52) were compared on demographic variables and mood symptoms to those who had symptomatically recovered but not functionally recovered (n = 33). Demographic and mood variables were examined in the nonfunctionally recovered group to assess predictors of time to functional recovery. The primary functional outcome measure used was the Life Functioning Questionnaire, a 5-minute, gender-neutral self-report scale to measure role function in 4 domains: workplace, duties at home, leisure time with family, and leisure time with friends. Participants in the study were recruited from July 2000 through February 2005.
Depressive symptoms, even at a subsyndromal level, were significantly associated with persisting functional impairment after symptomatic recovery from a manic episode (P < .02). Subsyndromal depressive symptoms also significantly predicted a slower time to functional recovery over the next 9 months (P = .006).
The presence of even mild subsyndromal depressive symptoms may interfere with functional recovery in patients with bipolar disorder after symptomatic recovery from a manic or hypomanic episode.
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is characterized by debilitating episodes of depression and mood elevation (mania or hypomania). For most patients, depressive symptoms are more pervasive than mood elevation or mixed symptoms, and thus have been reported in individual studies to impose a greater burden on affected individuals, caregivers, and society. This article reviews and compiles the literature on the prevalence and burden of syndromal as well as subsyndromal presentations of depression in bipolar disorder patients. The PubMed database was searched for English-language articles using the search terms "bipolar disorder," "bipolar depression," "burden," "caregiver burden," "cost," "costs," "economic," "epidemiology," "prevalence," "quality of life," and "suicide." Search results were manually reviewed, and relevant studies were selected for inclusion as appropriate. Additional references were obtained manually from reviewing the reference lists of selected articles found by computerized search. In aggregate, the findings support the predominance of depressive symptoms compared with mood elevation/mixed symptoms in the course of bipolar illness, and thus an overall greater burden in terms of economic costs, functioning, caregiver burden, and suicide. This review, although comprehensive, provides a study-wise aggregate (rather than a patient-wise meta-analytic) summary of the relevant literature on this topic. In light of its pervasiveness and prevalence, more effective and aggressive treatments for bipolar depression are warranted to mitigate its profound impact upon individuals and society. Such studies could benefit by including metrics not only for mood outcomes, but also for illness burden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 169S1:S3-S11. DOI:10.1016/S0165-0327(14)70003-5 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives Dysregulated affect is a hallmark feature of acute episodes of bipolar disorder (BD) and persists during inter-episode periods. Its contribution to course of illness is not yet known. The present report examines the prospective influence of inter-episode affect dysregulation on symptoms and functional impairment in BD. Methods Twenty-seven participants diagnosed with inter-episode bipolar I disorder completed daily measures of negative and positive affect for 49 days (±8 days) while they remained inter-episode. One month following this daily assessment period, symptom severity interviews and a measure of functional impairment were administered by telephone. Results More intense negative affect and positive affect during the inter-episode period were associated with higher depressive, but not manic, symptoms at the one-month follow-up assessment. More intense and unstable negative affect, and more unstable positive affect, during the inter-episode period were associated with greater impairment in home and work functioning at the follow-up assessment. All associations remained significant after controlling for concurrent symptom levels. Limitations The findings need to be confirmed in larger samples with longer follow-up periods. A more comprehensive assessment of functional impairment is also warranted. Conclusions The findings suggest that a persistent affective dysregulation between episodes of BD may be an important predictor of depression and functional impairment. Monitoring daily affect during inter-episode periods could allow for a more timely application of interventions that aim to prevent or reduce depressive symptoms and improve functioning for individuals with BD.Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jbtep.2014.07.005 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background These analyses compared efficacy of olanzapine in patients with bipolar mania with or without mixed features, as defined in the DSM-5. Methods Pooled data from 3 placebo-controlled olanzapine studies in patients having bipolar I disorder with manic/mixed episode were analyzed (N=228 olanzapine; N=219 placebo). Patients were categorized for mixed features by number of concurrent depressive symptoms at baseline (0, 1, and 2 [category A; without mixed features], and ≥3 [category B; with mixed features]), as determined by HAM-D17 item score ≥1. Depressive symptoms corresponded to 6 HAM-D17 items in the DSM-5 definition of manic episode with mixed features. Primary efficacy was evaluated by changes in the baseline-to-3-week YMRS total score. Results Patients were categorized into A (N=322; 72.0%) or B (N=125; 28.0%). Mean baseline YMRS total scores were 28.1 in category A and 27.8 in category B. Least-squares mean change of YMRS total scores in categories A and B (olanzapine versus placebo) were −11.78 versus −6.86 and −13.21 versus −4.72, respectively. Patients in the olanzapine- compared with placebo-group experienced a greater decrease in YMRS total score for both categories (p<0.001). An interaction between mixed features and treatment was seen in YMRS change at a 0.3 significance level (p=0.175). Limitations The results are from post-hoc analyses. Conclusions Olanzapine was efficacious in the treatment of bipolar I mania, in patients both with and without mixed features, defined by DSM-5; however, greater efficacy was observed in patients with mixed features having more severe depressive symptoms.Journal of Affective Disorders 10/2014; 168:136–141. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.06.039 · 3.71 Impact Factor