Characterization of a recombinant form of annexin VI for detection of apoptosis.
ABSTRACT We developed a recombinant form of human annexin VI called annexin VI-601 (M(r) 76,224) with the N-terminal extension of Ala-Gly-Gly-Cys-Gly-His to allow ready attachment of fluorescent or radioactive labels. The protein was produced by expression in E. coli and was purified by calcium-dependent membrane binding, anion-exchange chromatography, and heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The protein could be readily labeled with iodoacetamidofluorescein and with (99m)Tc. The protein bound with high affinity to PS-containing phospholipid vesicles and to erythrocytes with exposed phosphatidylserine. Fluorescent annexin VI-601 readily detected apoptosis of Jurkat cells by flow cytometry at much lower calcium concentrations than those required for equivalent detection by annexin V. In vivo administration of radiolabeled protein showed that blood clearance was much slower than annexin V. In conclusion, annexin VI may have advantages over annexin V in certain situations for both in vitro and in vivo detection of apoptosis and therapeutic targeting of PS due to its lower calcium requirement for membrane binding and its higher molecular weight.
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ABSTRACT: A synthetic, near-infrared, fluorescent probe, named PSS-794 was assessed for its ability to detect cell death in two animal models. The molecular probe contains a zinc(II)-dipicolylamine (Zn(2+)-DPA) affinity ligand that selectively targets exposed phosphatidylserine on the surface of dead and dying cells. The first animal model used rats that were treated with dexamethasone to induce thymic atrophy. Ex vivo fluorescence imaging and histological analysis of excised organs showed thymus uptake of PSS-794 was four times higher than a control fluorophore that lacked the Zn(2+)-DPA affinity ligand. In addition, the presence of PSS-794 produced a delayed and higher build up of dead and dying cells in the rat thymus. The second animal model employed focal beam radiation to induce cell death in tumor-bearing rats. Whole-body and ex vivo imaging showed that the amount of PSS-794 in a radiation-treated tumor was almost twice that in a non-treated tumor. The results indicate that PSS-794 may be useful for preclinical optical detection of tumor cell death due to therapy.Apoptosis 07/2011; 16(7):722-31. DOI:10.1007/s10495-011-0601-5 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dramatic changes in the structure of cell membranes on apoptosis allow easy, sensitive and non-destructive analysis of this process with the application of fluorescence methods. The strong plasma membrane asymmetry is present in living cells, and its loss on apoptosis is commonly detected with the probes interacting strongly and specifically with phosphatidylserine (PS). This phospholipid becomes exposed to the cell surface, and the application of annexin V labeled with fluorescent dye is presently the most popular tool for its detection. Several methods have been suggested recently that offer important advantages over annexin V assay with the ability to study apoptosis by spectroscopy of cell suspensions, flow cytometry and confocal or two-photon microscopy. The PS exposure marks the integrated changes in the outer leaflet of cell membrane that involve electrostatic potential and hydration, and the attempts are being made to provide direct probing of these changes. This review describes the basic mechanisms underlying the loss of membrane asymmetry during apoptosis and discusses, in comparison with the annexin V-binding assay, the novel fluorescence techniques of detecting apoptosis on cellular membrane level. In more detail we describe the detection method based on smart fluorescent dye F2N12S incorporated into outer leaflet of cell membrane and reporting on apoptotic cell transformation by easily detectable change of the spectral distribution of fluorescent emission. It can be adapted to any assay format.Cytotechnology 07/2012; 65(2). DOI:10.1007/s10616-012-9481-y · 1.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Radiolabeled Annexin A5 (AnxA5) is widely used for detecting phosphatidylserine exposed on cell surfaces during apoptosis. We describe here a new method for labeling AnxA5 and a size-matched control protein with short-lived carbon-11, for probing the specificity of in vivo cell death monitoring using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. METHODS: AnxA5 and the control protein were recombinantly expressed with a C-terminal "Sel-tag", the tetrapeptide -Gly-Cys-Sec-Gly-COOH. The proteins were then labeled either fluorescently for in vitro corroborations of binding behaviors or with (11)C for dynamic in vivo PET studies. RESULTS: AnxA5 demonstrated retained calcium-dependent binding to apoptotic cells after the C-terminus modification. The control protein showed no functional binding. The (11)C-ligands demonstrated similar in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior in healthy mice except for higher uptake in kidney and higher intact elimination to urine of AnxA5. After inducing hepatic apoptosis, however, the uptake of labeled AnxA5 in the targeted tissue increased compared to baseline levels while that of the control protein tended to decrease. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the combined use of these two tracers can facilitate differentiating specific AnxA5 binding and its changes caused by induced cell death from uptake due to non-specific permeability and retention effects at baseline or after therapy. General Significance The Sel-tag enables rapid and mild reactions with electrophilic agents giving site-specifically labeled proteins for multi-probe analyses. The combined use of (11)C-labeled AnxA5 and a size-matched control protein with dynamic PET can be useful for evaluating drug effects on target as well as off-target tissues.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2012; 1830(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2012.12.007 · 4.66 Impact Factor