Matriptase, a type II transmembrane serine protease, has been linked to initiation and promotion of epidermal carcinogenesis in a murine model, suggesting that deregulation of its role in epithelia contributes to transformation. In human prostate cancer, matriptase expression correlates with progression. It is therefore of interest to determine how matriptase may contribute to epithelial neoplastic progression. One approach for studying this is to identify potential matriptase substrates involved in epithelial integrity and/or transformation like the extracellular matrix macromolecule, laminin-332 (Ln-332), which is found in the basement membrane of many epithelia, including prostate. Proteolytic processing of Ln-332 regulates cell motility of both normal and transformed cells, which has implications in cancer progression.
In vitro cleavage experiments were performed with purified Ln-332 protein and matriptase. Western blotting, enzyme inhibition assays, and mass spectrometry were used to confirm cleavage events. Matriptase overexpressing LNCaP prostate cancer cells were generated and included in Transwell migration assays and single cell motility assays, along with other prostate cells.
We report that matriptase proteolytically cleaves Ln-332 in the β3 chain. Substrate specificity was confirmed by blocking cleavage with the matriptase inhibitor, Kunitz domain-1. Transwell migration assays showed that DU145 cell motility was significantly enhanced when plated on matriptase-cleaved Ln-332. Similarly, Transwell migration of matriptase-overexpressing LNCaP cells was significantly increased on Ln-332 and, as determined by live single-cell microscopy, two motility parameters of this cell line, speed and directional persistence, were also higher.
Proteolytic processing of Ln-332 by matriptase enhances speed and directional persistence of prostate cancer cells.
"To examine the feasibility of this method, it has been used along with a recently developed nonspecific absorption-resistant peptide 17 and applied in the protease assays using serum from prostate cancer victims. The protease species under inspection, namely, matriptase 18, 19, kallikrein 2 20, 21 and prostate specific antigen (PSA) compose a marker panel and differential expression of the three enzymes can offer reliable reference to the establishment and progression of cancerous condition. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reports a sensitive method with electrochemical technique to detect various proteases, which can be used for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. For the proposed assay method, the working electrode is modified with the peptide probes for the target proteases. These probes contain the substrate sequence of target proteases, as well as the seed peptide sequence that can accelerate the misfolding of amyloid-beta. If there are proteases in the test solution, after protease cleavage of the substrate peptides, the distal seed peptide will be removed from the electrode surface. So, in the absence of proteases, the seed peptides can initiate and accelerate amyloid-beta misfolding on the electrode surface. Consequently, the formed aggregates strongly block the electron transfer of the in-solution electroactive species with the electrode, resulting in suppressed signal readout. Nevertheless, in the presence of proteases, enzyme cleavage may lead to greatly mitigated protein misfolding and evident signal enhancement. Since the contrast in signal readout between the two cases can be amplified by using the protein misfolding step, high sensitivity suitable for direct detection of proteases in serum can be achieved. These results may suggest the feasibility of our new method for the detection of a panel of proteases in offering detailed diagnosis of prostate cancer and a better treatment of the cancer.
"Moreover, the strong lack of laminin-332 may be aggravated by its degradation by proteases. Increased mobility of PC cells is likely related to the proteolytic processing of laminin-332 by secreted proteases [40,53]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is one of the most common tumor diseases worldwide. Often being non-aggressive, prostate tumors in these cases do not need immediate treatment. However, about 20% of diagnosed prostate cancers tend to metastasize and require treatment. Existing diagnostic methods may fail to accurately recognize the transition of a dormant, non-aggressive tumor into highly malignant prostate cancer. Therefore, new diagnostic tools are needed to improve diagnosis and therapy of prostate carcinoma. This review evaluates existing methods to diagnose prostate carcinoma, such as the biochemical marker prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but also discusses the possibility to use the altered expression of integrins and laminin-332 in prostate carcinomas as diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets of prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The serine-protease hepsin is one of the most prominently overexpressed genes in human prostate carcinoma. Forced expression of the enzyme in mice prostates is associated with matrix degradation, invasive growth, and prostate cancer progression. Conversely, hepsin overexpression in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines was reported to induce cell cycle arrest and reduction of invasive growth in vitro. We used a system for doxycycline (dox)-inducible target gene expression in metastasis-derived PC3 cells to analyze the effects of hepsin in a quantitative manner. Loss of viability and adhesion correlated with hepsin expression levels during anchorage-dependent but not anchorage-independent growth. Full expression of hepsin led to cell death and detachment and was specifically associated with reduced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser(473), which was restored by growth on matrix derived from RWPE1 normal prostatic epithelial cells. In the chorioallantoic membrane xenograft model, hepsin overexpression in PC3 cells reduced the viability of tumors but did not suppress invasive growth. The data presented here provide evidence that elevated levels of hepsin interfere with cell adhesion and viability in the background of prostate cancer as well as other tissue types, the details of which depend on the microenvironment provided. Our findings suggest that overexpression of the enzyme in prostate carcinogenesis must be spatially and temporally restricted for the efficient development of tumors and metastases.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 07/2011; 13(7):579-89. DOI:10.1593/neo.11294 · 4.25 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.