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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes increases the risk of atherothrombosis, but reduces the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The reason for this difference is unknown. We examined the role of diabetes and glycation on AAA expansion and extracellular matrix-monocyte interactions. We followed 198 patients (20 with diabetes) who had 30-45 mm AAAs with yearly aortic ultrasound for 3 years. Diabetes was independently associated with reduced AAA growth (beta = -0.17, P = 0.01; OR for expansion above median 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.57). In vitro incubation of resting human monocytes with glycated bovine serum albumin or monomeric type I collagen increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion. In contrast, exposure of activated monocytes to glycated type I collagen lattices induced a marked reduction in MMP and interleukin-6 secretion. This de-activating effect was also demonstrated in cross-linked non-glycated collagen lattices, healthy decellularized aortic media, and decellularized aortic media from diabetes patients with atherosclerosis. In contrast, decellularized aortic media from patients with atherosclerosis, but no diabetes, induced increased MMP secretion. These findings confirm that the progression of AAA is slower in patients with diabetes and suggest a mechanism by which the aortic media may be protected from degradation in these individuals.
    European Heart Journal 04/2008; 29(5):665-72. DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehm557 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is a devastating event potentially preventable by therapies that inhibit growth of small aneurysms. Receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been implicated in age related diseases including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer. Consequently, we explored whether RAGE may also contribute to the formation of AAAs. Implicating a role for RAGE in AAA, we found the expression of RAGE and its ligand AGE were highly elevated in human aneurysm specimens as compared with normal aortic tissue. In a mouse model of AAA, RAGE gene deletion (knockout) dramatically reduced the incidence of AAA to 1/3 of control (AAAs in 75.0% of controls vs. 25.0% knockouts). Moreover, aortic diameter was markedly reduced in RAGE knockout animals versus controls. As to mechanism, we found that RAGE was coexpressed in AAA macrophages with MMP-9, a promoter of matrix degradation, which is known to induce AAA. In vitro, AGE induced the production of MMP-9 in macrophages in a dose-dependent manner while blocking RAGE signaling with a soluble AGE inhibitor prevented MMP-9 expression. In vivo, RAGE gene deficiency eliminated MMP-9 activity that was prevalent in aneurismal wall of the wild-type mice. RAGE promotes the development of AAA by inducing MMP-9 expression. Blocking RAGE in a mouse aneurysm model has a dramatic inhibitory effect on the formation of aneurysms. These data suggest that larger animal and eventually human trials should be designed to test oral RAGE inhibitors and their potential to prevent progression of small aneurysms.
    Annals of surgery 08/2009; 250(3):416-23. DOI:10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181b41a18 · 7.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. There is increasing evidence that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis, in particular in diabetes. AGE accumulation is a measure of cumulative metabolic and oxidative stress, and may so represent the "metabolic memory". Furthermore, increased AGE accumulation is closely related to the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes. This review article will focus on the clinical relevance of measuring AGE accumulation in diabetic patients by focusing on AGE formation, AGEs as predictors of long-term complications, and interventions against AGEs.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 11/2008; 7:29. DOI:10.1186/1475-2840-7-29 · 3.71 Impact Factor