Predictors of injury-related and non-injury-related mortality among veterans with alcohol use disorders.
ABSTRACT To describe the association between alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and mortality and to examine risk factors for and all-cause, injury-related and non-injury-related mortality among those diagnosed with an AUD.
Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration (VHA).
A cohort of individuals who received health care in VHA during the fiscal year (FY) 2001 (n = 3,944,778), followed from the beginning of FY02 through the end of FY06.
Demographics and medical diagnoses were obtained from VHA records. Data on mortality were obtained from the National Death Index.
Controlling for age, gender and race and compared to those without AUDs, individuals with AUDs were more likely to die by all causes [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.30], by injury-related (HR = 3.29) and by non-injury-related causes (HR = 2.21). Patients with AUDs died 15 years earlier than individuals without AUDs on average. Among those with AUDs, Caucasian ethnicity and all mental illness diagnoses that were assessed were associated more strongly with injury-related than non-injury-related mortality. Also among those with AUDs, individuals with medical comorbidity and older age were at higher risk for non-injury related compared to injury-related mortality.
In users of a large health-care system, a diagnosis of an AUD is associated significantly with increased likelihood of dying by injury and non-injury causes. Patients with a diagnosis of an AUD who die from injury differ significantly from those who die from other medical conditions. Prevention and intervention programs could focus separately upon selected groups with increased risk for injury or non-injury-related death.
- JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 04/1994; 271(9):660; author reply 660-1. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol use is related to a wide variety of negative health outcomes including morbidity, mortality, and disability. Research on alcohol-related morbidity and mortality takes into account the varying effects of overall alcohol consumption and drinking patterns. The results from this epidemiological research indicate that alcohol use increases the risk for many chronic health consequences (e.g., diseases) and acute consequences (e.g., traffic crashes), but a certain pattern of regular light-to-moderate drinking may have beneficial effects on coronary heart disease. Several issues are relevant to the methodology of studies of alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, including the measurement of both alcohol consumption and the outcomes studied as well as study design. Broad summary measures that reflect alcohol's possible effects on morbidity, mortality, and disability may be more useful than measures of any one outcome alone.Alcohol research & health: the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 02/2003; 27(1):39-51. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AIMS: To identify the policy implications of the magnitude and characteristics of alcohol consumption and problems, viewed globally, and to summarize conclusions on the effectiveness of the strategies available to policymakers concerned with reducing rates of alcohol problems. DESIGN/METHODS/SETTING: This summative article draws on the findings of the articles preceding it and of reviews of the literature. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Overall volume of consumption is the major factor in the prevalence of harms from drinking. Since consumption and associated problems tend to increase with economic development, policymakers in developing economies should be especially aware of the need to develop policies to minimize overall increases in alcohol consumption. Unrecorded consumption is also an important consideration for policy in many parts of the world, and poses difficulties for alcohol control policies. Drinking pattern is also an important contributing factor toward alcohol-related harm. Although some drinking patterns have been shown to produce beneficial health effects, because the net effect of alcohol on coronary disease is negative in most parts of the world, policies that promote abstinence or lower drinking overall may be the safest options. Moreover, sporadic intoxication is common in many parts of the world, and policies are unlikely to change this drinking pattern at least in the short to medium term. At the same time, because injuries comprise a large proportion of the burden of alcohol, it is appropriate to enhance these policies with targeted harm reduction strategies such as drinking and driving countermeasures and interventions focused on reducing alcohol-related violence in specific high-risk settings. Alcohol consumption is a major factor for the global burden of disease and should be considered a public health priority globally, regionally, and nationally for the vast majority of countries in the world. The need for alcohol policy is even stronger when it is taken into consideration that the burden of alcohol estimated in the WHO Global Burden of Disease project includes primarily health problems related to drinking. From the limited evidence available, however, social problems related to drinking seem to impose at least as much burden. Moreover, the burden for both social and health harms fall not only on the drinker, but also on others. There is a broad literature on policy interventions to reduce alcohol problems. Effective strategies include controls over distribution and sale, taxation, drinking-driving countermeasures, brief interventions by health workers or counselors, and selected harm reduction measures. There is a need to develop the growing literature on comparative evaluations of cost-effectiveness of such strategies. In addition, international agreements are needed to support the effectiveness of national strategies.European Addiction Research 11/2003; 9(4):165-75. · 2.36 Impact Factor