To identify the effect of prenatal labetalol exposure on children's long-term neurodevelopment.
A cohort study with matched controls using a prospectively collected database.
Participants were women counseled for hypertension in pregnancy at the Motherisk Program at The Hospital for Sick Children, and The Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Canada and their children. Mother-child pairs were divided into groups based on in-utero exposure to labetalol (n = 32), non-teratogenic substances (n = 42), and methyldopa (n = 25). The main outcome measures were children's Full-Scale IQ, Performance IQ and Verbal IQ assessed with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence.
There were no statistically significant differences in scores on Full-Scale IQ, Performance IQ, or Verbal IQ between children exposed in utero to labetalol and to non-teratogenic substances (Full-Scale IQ: 109.60 +/- 8.20 vs. 111.90 +/- 11.39, p = 0.647; Performance IQ: 104.80 +/- 8.69 vs. 110.19 +/- 12.91, p = 0.186; Verbal IQ: 112.27 +/- 11.05 vs. 11.21 +/- 11.98, p = 0.922, respectively). Children in the methyldopa group achieved lower scores on measures of Full-Scale IQ and Performance IQ when compared to children exposed to non-teratogenic substances (Full-Scale IQ: 105.24 +/- 12.46 vs. 111.90 +/- 11.39, p = 0.043; Performance IQ: 98.80 +/- 16.16 vs. 110.19 +/- 12.91, p = 0.002, respectively). Linear regression analysis revealed that maternal Full Scale IQ was a significant predictor of children's Full-Scale IQ (p = 0.020, beta = 0.229). Maternal Performance IQ and duration of treatment with methyldopa were significant predictors of children's Performance IQ (p = 0.028, beta = 0.232; p = 0.16, beta = -0.255, respectively).
In-utero exposure to labetalol does not appear to adversely affect the neurocognitive development of young children. These reassuring results may aid disease management for pregnant women with hypertension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silicon technology continues to progress rapidly, with current generation technologies having physical gate lengths below 100 nm. At the same time, remarkable advances in non-silicon nano- and molecular technologies are occurring. In this report, it is argued that current-day silicon technology meets the definition of nanoelectronics, that future silicon technologies will meet it even better, and that nontraditional technologies could play an important role in future electronic systems by complementing the capabilities of nanoscale silicon technology.
Low Power Electronics and Design, 2002. ISLPED '02. Proceedings of the 2002 International Symposium on; 02/2002
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe hypertension is a frequent condition among patients presenting to emergency departments. Historically, this has been referred to as a hypertensive crisis. In addition, these hypertensive crises have been further divided into either hypertensive emergencies or urgencies depending on the presence or absence of target organ damage, respectively. The management differs between these crises in both the rapidity of blood pressure correction and the medications used. Hypertensive emergencies must be treated immediately with intravenous antihypertensive medications. However, hypertensive urgencies may be treated with oral antihypertensive agents to reduce the blood pressure to baseline or normal over a period of 24-48 hr. Appropriate identification, evaluation, and treatment of these conditions are of great importance in the emergency department to prevent progression of organ damage and death. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the hypertensive crises and their management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many aspects of hypertension care outside pregnancy may be applied in pregnancy, but little information is available on which to base decision-making. It would seem reasonable to continue previous dietary salt restriction and physical activity in women with pre-existing (and controlled) hypertension, encourage a heart-healthy diet in all women with a hypertension disorder of pregnancy, and take patient preference into account when deciding on place of care. Although bed rest has become a key part of obstetric practice and for care of women with a hypertension disorder of pregnancy, in particular, the evidence is lacking to support this practice. This may also increase thromboembolic risk. Antihypertensive treatment is strongly advised for women with severe hypertension. The most common agents are parenteral labetalol, hydralazine, or oral nifedipine capsules. Clinicians should familiarise themselves with multiple agents. Until the role of antihypertensive treatment for non-severe hypertension in pregnancy is clarified by ongoing research, clinicians should explicitly state an individual patient's blood pressure goal, which could reasonably be anywhere between 130/80 and 155/105 mmHg. Labetalol and methyldopa are used most commonly. Breastfeeding should be encouraged. Many risk factors for hypertension (e.g. obesity), as well as hospitalisation and pre-eclampsia, all increase the thromboembolic risk for pregnant women, and care providers should consider thromboprophylaxis in the appropriate setting. Finally, anaesthetists play a critical role in the management of women with a hypertension disorder of pregnancy, and should be involved earlier rather than later in the course of their care.
Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology 04/2011; 25(4):477-90. DOI:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2011.01.009 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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