Revisiting chordoma with brachyury, a "new age" marker: analysis of a validation study on 51 cases.
ABSTRACT Chordoma is a rare, notochordal tumor with a characteristic histomorphology and immunohistochemical profile. At times, it presents a diagnostic challenge, especially in small biopsies. Brachyury, a nuclear transcription factor, is a recently described immunohistochemical marker for diagnosing chordomas.
To study the sensitivity and specificity of brachyury in diagnosing chordomas by comparing its expression in axial chordomas with nonchordomatous tumors.
Fifty-one axial chordomas, accessioned during a 10-year period, and 58 nonchordomatous tumors were subjected to brachyury staining by immunohistochemistry.
The 51 chordomas occurred in 36 men and 15 women. Sitewise, 34 cases (66.7%) occurred in the sacrococcyx, 9 (17.6%) in the spine, and 8 (15.7%) in the skull base. Histologically, 34 cases (66.7%) were classical chordomas, 13 cases (25.5%) had a dominant chondroid component, and 2 cases each (3.9%) were chondroid chordomas and dedifferentiated chordomas, respectively. Brachyury staining was positive in 46 of the 51 chordomas (90.2%) and negative in all 58 nonchordomatous tumors. The dedifferentiated area in 2 chordomas was negative for brachyury staining. Fourteen of 15 chordomas with chondroid component showed positive brachyury staining. Immunohistochemical expression of other markers, included cytokeratin (positive in 23 of 23 cases; 100%), epithelial membrane antigen (positive in 22 of 22 cases; 100%) and S100 protein (positive in 18 of 21 cases; 85.7%).
Exclusive brachyury expression in more than 90% of chordomas indicates its value as a unique, specific marker with other sensitive markers like cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and/or S100 protein in substantiating a diagnosis of chordoma, including on small biopsies.
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ABSTRACT: A number of meningeal neoplastic lesions may radiologically and clinically simulate meningioma. In the present paper, we review meningeal non-meningothelial tumors which may also mimic different histotypes of meningioma at the histological examination. Awareness that these lesions exist may facilitate their recognition and correct diagnosis, which is of fundamental importance for prognosis and an appropriate therapeutic approach. Histological and immunohistochemical clues for the differential diagnosis are discussed.Pathology - Research and Practice 08/2012; 208(10):567-77. DOI:10.1016/j.prp.2012.07.002 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chordomas are malignant neoplasms that typically arise in the axial spine and primarily affect adults. When chordomas arise in pediatric patients they are more likely to display unusual histological features and aggressive behavior. We noted the absence of SMARCB1/INI1 expression by immunohistochemistry in an index case of poorly differentiated chordoma of the sacrum, leading us to further examine SMARCB1/INI1 expression as well as that of brachyury, a highly specific marker of notochordal differentiation, in 3 additional poorly differentiated chordomas of the clivus, 10 typical chordomas, and 8 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs). All 4 poorly differentiated chordomas and all AT/RTs lacked nuclear expression of SMARCB1/INI1, while the 10 typical chordomas maintained strong nuclear SMARCB1/INI1 immunoreactivity. All 10 typical and 4 poorly differentiated chordomas expressed brachyury; all 8 AT/RTs were brachyury immunonegative. Cytogenetic evaluation utilizing FISH probes near the SMARCB1/INI1 locus on chromosome 22q was also performed in all of the poorly differentiated chordomas in this series. Three of the four poorly differentiated chordomas had evidence for deletion of this region by FISH. Analysis of the SMARCB1/INI1 gene sequence was performed using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue in all cases and no point mutations were observed. In summary, all poorly differentiated chordomas in this series showed the absence of SMARCB1/INI1 expression, and were reliably distinguished from AT/RTs, clinically by their characteristic primary sites of origin and pathologically by strong nuclear brachyury expression. Our findings reveal a likely role for SMARCB1/INI1 in a subset of chordomas with aggressive features.Acta Neuropathologica 10/2010; 120(6):745-53. DOI:10.1007/s00401-010-0767-x · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Brachyury is recognized as a specific marker for notochord-derived tissues and neoplasms, and has become a defining immunohistochemical feature of chordoma. The main differential diagnostic consideration for chordoma is chondrosarcoma, which is known to lack brachyury expression. However, within the spectrum of genitourinary neoplasia, metastatic germ cell tumors and clear cell renal cell carcinoma may also be close morphological mimics of chordoma, particularly given the increasing prevalence of small tissue samples from image-guided biopsies. Although immunoreactivity for brachyury has been reported in a few germ cell tumors, a thorough characterization of staining by specific subtype has not been performed in a large series. Additionally, brachyury expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma has not been well studied. In this study, immunohistochemical expression with the brachyury antibody was evaluated in 111 germ cell tumors, 30 non-neoplastic and neoplastic (non-germ cell) testicular tissues, and 184 metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinomas using tissue microarray technology. In addition, immunoreactivity for PAX-8 and SALL-4 was evaluated in 12 chordomas on whole section. No nuclear brachyury expression was identified in any of the 101 germ cell tumors within the tissue microarray (including choriocarcinoma (1), embryonal carcinoma (20), intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (2), seminoma (64), spermatocytic seminoma (1), teratoma (5) and yolk sac tumor (8)), in any of the 30 non-neoplastic and neoplastic (non-germ cell) testicular tissues, or in any of the 10 whole-section seminomas. All 184 metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinomas were also non-reactive for brachyury. All 12 chordomas showed strong nuclear immunoreactivity for brachyury, but no expression of SALL-4. In all, 1 of 12 chordoma cases showed patchy, 1+ nuclear immunoreactivity for PAX-8. This study confirms the specificity of brachyury for chordoma in the differential diagnostic distinction from the potential genitourinary mimics, germ cell tumors and metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.Modern Pathology 11/2010; 24(3):425-9. DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2010.196 · 6.36 Impact Factor