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Early-onset L-dopa-responsive parkinsonism with pyramidal signs due to ATP13A2, PLA2G6, FBXO7 and spatacsin mutations. Move Disord: Off J Move Disord Soc

Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom.
Movement Disorders (Impact Factor: 5.68). 09/2010; 25(12):1791-800. DOI: 10.1002/mds.23221
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ABSTRACT Seven autosomal recessive genes associated with juvenile and young-onset Levodopa-responsive parkinsonism have been identified. Mutations in PRKN, DJ-1, and PINK1 are associated with a rather pure parkinsonian phenotype, and have a more benign course with sustained treatment response and absence of dementia. On the other hand, Kufor-Rakeb syndrome has additional signs, which distinguish it clearly from Parkinson's disease including supranuclear vertical gaze palsy, myoclonic jerks, pyramidal signs, and cognitive impairment. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type I (Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome) due to mutations in PANK2 gene may share similar features with Kufor-Rakeb syndrome. Mutations in three other genes, PLA2G6 (PARK14), FBXO7 (PARK15), and Spatacsin (SPG11) also produce clinical similar phenotypes in that they presented with rapidly progressive parkinsonism, initially responsive to Levodopa treatment but later, developed additional features including cognitive decline and loss of Levodopa responsiveness. Here, using homozygosity mapping and sequence analysis in families with complex parkinsonisms, we identified genetic defects in the ATP13A2 (1 family), PLA2G6 (1 family) FBXO7 (2 families), and SPG11 (1 family). The genetic heterogeneity was surprising given their initially common clinical features. On careful review, we found the FBXO7 cases to have a phenotype more similar to PRKN gene associated parkinsonism. The ATP13A2 and PLA2G6 cases were more seriously disabled with additional swallowing problems, dystonic features, severe in some, and usually pyramidal involvement including pyramidal weakness. These data suggest that these four genes account for many cases of Levodopa responsive parkinsonism with pyramidal signs cases formerly categorized clinically as pallido-pyramidal syndrome.

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    • "Here, we report two siblings with a homozygous FBX07 mutation , R498X, which was first described in an Italian family and later also reported in a Turkish family [2] [3]. In the family discussed here, the index case presented with progressive speech problems, severe apathy, chorea, and tics. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective FBXO7 mutations (PARK 15), first reported in 2008, are among the monogenic causes of early-onset parkinsonism. Classically, PARK 15 was suggested to correspond to previously described pallido-pyramidal syndrome. Here, we report clinical and genetic findings in a unique family of Kurdish origin with an FBXO7 mutation and presenting with diverse clinical phenotypes. Methods The family consisted of 14 members (12 offspring) of whom three were affected. Two of these three siblings were examined in our clinic. DNA samples from the index case and his elder sister were subjected to homozygosity mapping and exomic sequencing. Results The index case had progressive speech problems, severe apathy, chorea, and tics at presentation and developed very mild parkinsonism and postural instability after 3 years. His sister had young-onset asymmetric tremor-dominant parkinsonism with some atypical features, such as early development of postural instability, tics, and tachyphemic speech. She died of an akinetic-rigid condition and had not developed chorea. A homozygous R498X mutation was found in both patients (NM_012179; chr22:31,224,440). This result was further confirmed by Sanger sequencing in both patients, their consanguineous parents, and their maternal grandfather; the latter three were found to be heterozygous for the mutation (c.C1492T; p.R498X). Conclusions The family presented here broadens the clinical spectrum of parkinsonism to include tics and chorea, in addition to the parkinsonian-pyramidal phenotype, in connection with FBXO7 mutations and points to an intrafamilial phenotypic variation.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 11/2014; 20(11). DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.07.016 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    • "Up to now, only four different types of FBXO7 mutations (T22M, R378G, R498X, IVS7+1G/T) have been reported to be responsible for parkinsonian-pyramidal disease, which has been designated as the cause of PARK15 [4], [5], [6]. Recently, two missense substitutions (p.Ile87Thr and p.Asp328Arg) were found in two EOPD patients in Taiwan [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the F-box only protein 7 gene (FBXO7), the substrate-specifying subunit of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, cause Parkinson's disease (PD)-15 (PARK15). To identify new variants, we sequenced FBXO7 cDNA in 80 Taiwanese early onset PD patients (age at onset ≤50) and only two known variants, Y52C (c.155A>G) and M115I (c.345G>A), were found. To assess the association of Y52C and M115I with the risk of PD, we conducted a case-control study in a cohort of PD and ethnically matched controls. There was a nominal difference in the Y52C G allele frequency between PD and controls (p = 0.045). After combining data from China [1], significant difference in the Y52C G allele frequency between PD and controls (p = 0.012) and significant association of G allele with decreased PD risk (p = 0.017) can be demonstrated. Upon expressing EGFP-tagged Cys52 FBXO7 in cells, a significantly reduced rate of FBXO7 protein decay was observed when compared with cells expressing Tyr52 FBXO7. In silico modeling of Cys52 exhibited a more stable feature than Tyr52. In cells expressing Cys52 FBXO7, the level of TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) was significantly reduced. Moreover, Cys52 FBXO7 showed stronger interaction with TRAF2 and promoted TRAF2 ubiquitination, which may be responsible for the reduced TRAF2 expression in Cys52 cells. After induced differentiation, SH-SY5Y cells expressing Cys52 FBXO7 displayed increased neuronal outgrowth. We therefore hypothesize that Cys52 variant of FBXO7 may contribute to reduced PD susceptibility in Chinese.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101392. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101392 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "The identification of mutations within FBXO7 in patients presenting with an early-onset form of PD opened up new questions about the role of Fbxo7 in the preservation of neuronal health [75,113,114]. Whole-genome SNP arrays were instrumental in the discovery of the first disease-associated variant of the FBXO7 gene, revealing a homozygous mutation (R378G) in an Iranian family [114]. This was quickly followed by the identification of other mutations, including a homozygous truncating mutation (R498X) in an Italian family and compound heterozygous mutations consisting of a splice-site (IVS7 + 1G/T) and point mutation (T22M) in a Dutch family [75]. "
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    ABSTRACT: F-box proteins (FBPs) are substrate-recruiting subunits of Skp1-cullin1-FBP (SCF)-type E3 ubiquitin ligases. To date, 69 FBPs have been identified in humans, but ubiquitinated substrates have only been identified for a few, with the majority of FBPs remaining 'orphans'. In recent years, a growing body of work has identified non-canonical, SCF-independent roles for about 12% of the human FBPs. These atypical FBPs affect processes as diverse as transcription, cell cycle regulation, mitochondrial dynamics and intracellular trafficking. Here, we provide a general review of FBPs, with a particular emphasis on these expanded functions. We review Fbxo7 as an exemplar of this special group as it has well-defined roles in both SCF and non-SCF complexes. We review its function as a cell cycle regulator, via its ability to stabilize p27 protein and Cdk6 complexes, and as a proteasome regulator, owing to its high affinity binding to PI31. We also highlight recent advances in our understanding of Fbxo7 function in Parkinson's disease, where it functions in the regulation of mitophagy with PINK1 and Parkin. We postulate that a few extraordinary FBPs act as platforms that seamlessly segue their canonical and non-canonical functions to integrate different cellular pathways and link their regulation.
    Open Biology 10/2013; 3(10):130131. DOI:10.1098/rsob.130131 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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