Comorbid Cancer in Parkinson's Disease
ABSTRACT The aim of this article was to evaluate cancer occurrence before and after diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated 692 patients newly diagnosed with PD and 761 age- and sex-matched control subjects identified during two periods (1994-1995 and 2000-2003) within Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California. Primary cancers were searched and dated, and all participants were followed up until the end of membership, death, or December 31, 2008. We used unconditional logistic regression to evaluate the PD-cancer association before the date of PD diagnosis or the index date and Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the PD-cancer association after the index date. Nearly 20% (140 of 692) of the PD patients and 25% (188 of 761) of the non-PD controls had ever had a cancer diagnosis. Before the index date, the prevalence of cancer was not significantly lower in patients with PD (8.1% PD vs. 9.2% controls; OR = 0.83; 95% CI 0.54-1.3). After the index date, the risk of developing a cancer did not differ between PD cases and controls (relative risk [RR] = 0.94; 95% CI 0.70-1.3). Among specific cancers, melanoma was more common among PD cases (before PD, OR = 1.5; 95% CI 0.40-5.2; after PD, RR = 1.6; 95% CI 0.71-3.6), but independent of dopaminergic therapy. Cancer occurrence is not significantly lower among patients with PD. The positive association between PD and subsequent melanoma merits further investigation, as it does not seem to be attributable to dopaminergic therapy, pigmentation, or confounding by smoking.
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ABSTRACT: Background: There is a lack of scientific consensus about cancer comorbidity in people with central nervous system (CNS) disorders. This study assesses the co-occurrence of cancers in patients with CNS disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), autism spectrum disorders, Down's syndrome (DS), Huntington's disease (HD), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Method: Comprehensive search in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge of the literature published before March 2013. We identified 51 relevant articles from 2,229 discrete references, 50 of which contained data suitable for quantitative synthesis (577,013 participants). Pooled effect sizes (ES) were calculated using multiple random-effects meta-analyses. Sources of heterogeneity and uncertainty were explored by means of subgroup and sensitivity analyses, respectively. Results: The presence of CNS disorders was associated with a reduced co-occurrence of cancer (ES = 0.92; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.87-0.98; I(2) = 94.5%). A consistently lower overall co-occurrence of cancer was detected in patients with neurodegenerative disorders (ES = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.75- 0.86; I(2) = 82.8%), and in those with AD (ES = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.22-0.46; I(2) = 0.0%), PD (ES = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.76-0.91; I(2) = 80.0%), MS (ES = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.87-0.95; I(2) = 30.3%) and HD (ES = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.42-0.67; I(2) = 56.4%). Patients with DS had a higher overall co-occurrence of cancer (ES = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.08-1.96; I(2) = 87.9%). No association was observed between cancer and ALS (ES = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.76-1.25; I(2) = 0.0%) or SCZ (ES = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.90-1.07; I(2) = 96.3%). Patients with PD, MS and SCZ showed (a) higher co-occurrence of some specific cancers (e.g. PD with melanoma, MS with brain cancers and SCZ with breast cancer), and (b) lower co-occurrence of other specific cancers (e.g. lung, prostate and colorectal cancers in PD; lung and prostate cancers in MS; and melanoma and prostate cancer in SCZ). Conclusion: Increased and decreased co-occurrence of cancer in patients with CNS disorders represents an opportunity to discover biological and non-biological connections between these complex disorders. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 01/2014; 83(2):89-105. DOI:10.1159/000356498 · 9.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cancer appears to be inversely associated with both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The relationship between cancer and sporadic motor neuron disease (SMND), however, remains uncertain. Most previous cancer-SMND studies have been undertaken in northern hemisphere populations. We therefore undertook a case-control study to see if a link between cancer and SMND exists in an Australian population. A questionnaire was used to compare past cancer diagnoses in 739 SMND patients and 622 controls, recruited across Australia. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to look for associations between cancer and SMND. A history of cancer was not associated either positively or negatively with a risk of subsequent SMND. This result remained when age, gender, smoking status, and the four SMND diagnostic subgroups were taken into account. No association was observed between SMND and specific tumours, including melanoma, a common malignancy in Australia. In conclusion, this Australian case-control study does not support an association between a past history of cancer and the development of SMND. This suggests that some pathogenetic mechanisms, such as apoptosis, are less relevant in SMND than in other neurodegenerative diseases where negative associations with cancer have been found.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103572. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103572 · 3.53 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease, with a constantly increasing prevalence and a high global financial impact arising from direct and indirect costs. Large-scale, observational studies provide data that support the better comprehension of disease aspects, constitute a baseline reference for future studies and assist comparisons among different patient populations, allowing the recognition of distinctive characteristics and special needs. The present study is the first to depict the clinical characteristics and their interplay in a large sample of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in Greece. Nine hundred eighty six consecutive PD outpatients were recruited from 17 centers around Greece in the time period from 8/2007 to 7/2009 and were examined and interviewed by movement disorders experts. Multiple clinical characteristics were recorded including age at diagnosis, disease severity, patients' self classification of PD symptoms and their relevance to physician's global clinical impression, smoking, alcohol consumption, presence of family history for PD, dementia, depression, hypertension, cancer and other comorbidities. Associations of high clinical significance were found between certain clinical characteristics.Journal of the Neurological Sciences 08/2014; 343(s 1–2):36–40. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2014.05.003 · 2.26 Impact Factor