[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cognitive problems are a major factor determining quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease. These include deficits in inhibitory control, ranging from subclinical alterations in decision-making to severe impulse control disorders. Based on preclinical studies, we proposed that Parkinson's disease does not cause a unified disorder of inhibitory control, but rather a set of impulsivity factors with distinct psychological profiles, anatomy and pharmacology. We assessed a broad set of measures of the cognitive, behavioural and temperamental/trait aspects of impulsivity. Sixty adults, including 30 idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage I-III) and 30 healthy controls, completed a neuropsychological battery, objective behavioural measures and self-report questionnaires. Univariate analyses of variance confirmed group differences in nine out of eleven metrics. We then used factor analysis (principal components method) to identify the structure of impulsivity in Parkinson's disease. Four principal factors were identified, consistent with four different mechanisms of impulsivity, explaining 60% of variance. The factors were related to (1) tests of response conflict, interference and self assessment of impulsive behaviours on the Barrett Impulsivity Scale, (2) tests of motor inhibitory control, and the self-report behavioural approach system, (3) time estimation and delay aversion, and (4) reflection in hypothetical scenarios including temporal discounting. The different test profiles of these four factors were consistent with human and comparative studies of the pharmacology and functional anatomy of impulsivity. Relationships between each factor and clinical and demographic features were examined by regression against factor loadings. Levodopa dose equivalent was associated only with factors (2) and (3). The results confirm that impulsivity is common in Parkinson's disease, even in the absence of impulse control disorders, and that it is not a unitary phenomenon. A better understanding of the structure of impulsivity in Parkinson's disease will support more evidence-based and effective strategies to treat impulsivity.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85747. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gambling Disorder (GD) is characterized by "the failure to resist gambling impulses despite severe personal, family or occupational consequences". In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), GD replaces the DSM-IV diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG). GD estimated prevalence ranges between 0.4% and 3.4% within the adult population and it seems to be more common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In this population, GD recently has become more widely recognized as a possible complication of dopamine agonist (DA) therapy. This association has aroused great interest for the dramatic impact GD has on patients' quality of life. Management of PG in patients with PD could be demanding. It is based on patient and caregiver education, modification of dopamine replacement therapy, and in some cases psychoactive drug administration. In this review article, the authors provide an overview of GD pathogenesis during DA therapy as well as a summary of available treatment options.
BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:728038. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative brain disorder and is characterized by motor symptoms such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability. A majority of the patients also develop non-motor symptoms. Impulse control disorders (ICD) are behavioural changes that often fail to be detected in clinical practice. The prevalence of ICD in PD varies widely from 6.1 to 31.2 % and treatment with dopaminergic medication is considered to be the greatest risk factor. Management consists mainly of reducing dopaminergic medication. In our experience, ICD has a tremendous impact on the quality of life of the patients and their families and should therefore not be disregarded. Studies addressing the role of ICD in PD caregiver strain are imperative. We attempt to give a comprehensive overview of the literature on the complicated neurobiology of ICD and discuss risk factors, genetic susceptibility, screening modalities and management.
Journal of Neurology 05/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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