[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is incurable and characterized by progressive paralysis of the muscles of the limbs, speech and swallowing, and respiration due to the progressive degeneration of voluntary motor neurons. Clinically indistinguishable ALS can be caused by genetic mutations of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP43), or fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS), or can occur in the absence of known mutation as sporadic disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FUS/TLS and TDP43 gain new pathogenic functions upon aberrant accumulation in the cytosol that directly or indirectly include misfolding of SOD1.
Patient spinal cord necropsy immunohistochemistry with SOD1 misfolding-specific antibodies revealed misfolded SOD1 in perikarya and motor axons of SOD1-familial ALS (SOD1-FALS), and in motor axons of R521C-FUS FALS and sporadic ALS (SALS) with cytoplasmic TDP43 inclusions. SOD1 misfolding and oxidation was also detected using immunocytochemistry and quantitative immunoprecipitation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells as well as cultured murine spinal neural cells transgenic for human wtSOD1, which were transiently transfected with human cytosolic mutant FUS or TDP43, or wtTDP43.
We conclude that cytosolic mislocalization of FUS or TDP43 in vitro and ALS in vivo may kindle wtSOD1 misfolding in non-SOD1 FALS and SALS. The lack of immunohistochemical compartmental co-localization of misfolded SOD1 with cytosolic TDP43 or FUS suggests an indirect induction of SOD1 misfolding followed by propagation through template directed misfolding beyond its site of inception. The identification of a final common pathway in the molecular pathogenesis of ALS provides a treatment target for this devastating disease.
PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e35050. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0035050 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of our understanding of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) has gathered pace over the last 10 years. After taking a back seat to Alzheimer's disease (AD) for many years FTD has emerged as a significant group of heterogeneous diseases often affecting people under the age of 65. FTD has also been brought into the spotlight as the major diseases entities of the group have clinical, genetic and pathological links to motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MND/ALS), indicating that they form a disease spectrum. In this review we overview how the pathological concept of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and the clinical concept of FTD evolved and show that FTLD, once thought of as a single disorder, represents a heterogeneous group of diseases with overlapping clinical symptoms, multiple genes and varying underlying pathology. We also provide a brief summary of the clinical manifestations, summarise the major genetic aspects and describe the main pathological features seen in the different subtypes of FTLD. We also summarise the correlations that exist between clinical presentations and pathological variants. An overview of the main pathogenic mechanisms is also provided.
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Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/nan.12250 · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease. It is characterized by neuronal loss and degeneration of the upper motor neurons (UMNs) and lower motor neurons (LMNs), and is usually fatal due to respiratory failure within 3-5 years of onset. Although approximately 5-10 % of patients with ALS have an inherited form of the disease, the distinction between hereditary and apparently sporadic ALS (SALS) seems to be artificial. Thus, genetic factors play a role in all types of ALS, to a greater or lesser extent. During the decade of upheaval, the evolution of molecular genetics technology has rapidly advanced our genetic knowledge about the causes of ALS, and the relationship between the genetic subtypes and clinical phenotype. In this review, we will focus on the possible genotype-phenotype correlation in hereditary ALS. Uncovering the identity of the genetic factors in ALS will not only improve the accuracy of ALS diagnosis, but may also provide new approaches for preventing and treating the disease.
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