Peripheral nerve pericytes modify the blood-nerve barrier function and tight junctional molecules through the secretion of various soluble factors.
ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to establish pure blood-nerve barrier (BNB) and blood-brain barrier (BBB)-derived pericyte cell lines of human origin and to investigate their unique properties as barrier-forming cells. Brain and peripheral nerve pericyte cell lines were established via transfection with retrovirus vectors incorporating human temperature-sensitive SV40 T antigen (tsA58) and telomerase. These cell lines expressed several pericyte markers such as α-smooth muscle actin, NG2, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, whereas they did not express endothelial cell markers such as vWF and PECAM. In addition, the inulin clearance was significantly lowered in peripheral nerve microvascular endothelial cells (PnMECs) through the up-regulation of claudin-5 by soluble factors released from brain or peripheral nerve pericytes. In particular, bFGF secreted from peripheral nerve pericytes strengthened the barrier function of the BNB by increasing the expression of claudin-5. Peripheral nerve pericytes may regulate the barrier function of the BNB, because the BNB does not contain cells equivalent to astrocytes which regulate the BBB function. Furthermore, these cell lines expressed several neurotrophic factors such as NGF, BDNF, and GDNF. The secretion of these growth factors from peripheral nerve pericytes might facilitate axonal regeneration in peripheral neuropathy. Investigation of the characteristics of peripheral nerve pericytes may provide novel strategies for modifying BNB functions and promoting peripheral nerve regeneration.
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ABSTRACT: Pericytes are perivascular cells that envelop and make intimate connections with adjacent capillary endothelial cells. Recent studies show that they may have a profound impact in skeletal muscle regeneration, innervation, vessel formation, fibrosis, fat accumulation, and ectopic bone formation throughout life. In this review, we summarize and evaluate recent advances in our understanding of pericytes' influence on adult skeletal muscle pathophysiology. We also discuss how further elucidating their biology may offer new approaches to the treatment of conditions characterized by muscle wasting.Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 09/2014; 6:245. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Brain inflammation plays a key role in neurological disease. Although much research has been conducted investigating inflammatory events in animal models, potential differences in human brain versus rodent models makes it imperative that we also study these phenomena in human cells and tissue.Journal of Neuroinflammation 06/2014; 11(1):104. · 4.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The central and peripheral nervous systems are tightly sealed from the blood by the blood–brain barrier, the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier, the blood–spinal cord barrier and the blood–nerve barrier (BNB). These neural barriers inhibit free paracellular diffusion of water soluble molecules through complex tight junctions that interconnect endothelial cells and choroid plexus epithelial cells. These barriers also play a role in the influx transport of essential molecules and the efflux transport of xenobiotics. The differences and commonalities between these barrier systems have been gradually elucidated in recent years. It is now clear that disruption of the blood–neural barrier plays a key role in a number of diseases affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the present review, we describe the current knowledge regarding the cellular and molecular basis of the functional blood–neural tissue barrier, while addressing the BNB in particular detail.Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology. 08/2013; 4(2).