Cacalol, a natural sesquiterpene, induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by modulating Akt-SREBP-FAS signaling pathway
ABSTRACT We previously isolated cacalol as a free radical-scavenging compound from Cacalia delphiniifolia which is a traditional Asian herbal plant and is believed to have medicinal effects on cancer. In this report, we demonstrated that cacalol has strong anti-proliferation effect on breast cancer cells and induces apoptosis by activating a pro-apoptotic pathway. We also found that a combination of cacalol and other chemotherapeutic drugs (Taxol and cyclophosphamide) synergistically induced apoptosis and partially overcame chemo-resistance. To further gain a mechanistic insight, we tested a potential inhibitory effect of cacalol on fatty acid synthase gene (FAS) in breast cancer cells, and found that cacalol significantly modulated the expression of the FAS gene, which resulted in apoptosis through activation of DAPK2 and caspase 3. We have also shown that cacalol significantly suppressed the Akt-sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) signaling pathway and concomitant transcriptional activation of FAS. In a xenograft model of nude mouse, when cacalol was administered intraperitoneally, tumor growth was significantly suppressed. Importantly, oral administration of cacalol before implanting tumors showed significant preventive effect on tumor growth in the same animal model. Furthermore, the treatment of mice with a combination of low dose of Taxol and cacalol significantly suppressed the tumor growth. Taken together, our results indicate that cacalol induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells and impairs mammary tumor growth in vivo by blocking the expression of the FAS gene through modulation of Akt-SREBP pathway, suggesting that cacalol has potential utility as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Based on a common belief, herbal medicine with the least possible side effects should be the center of attention in cancer care; however, in many cases they have not been properly studied with reliable clinical trials in human subjects. In this review, it was attempted to identify the available evidence on the use and clinical effects of herbs in cancer care. The research consists of two major parts including immunomodulator and chemopreventive herbal compounds whose mechanism, biological response, anticancer element of extract and related benefits were completely studied. Also, the safety of herbal anticancer compounds was discussed. Although the use of herbal medicines in treating cancer shows less chemotherapy-induced, toxicity, more researches are required to reach their full therapeutic potentials.04/2012; 5(3).
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ABSTRACT: A bisabolane sesquiterpene endoperoxide compound, 3,6-epidioxy-1,10-bisaboladiene (EDBD), was isolated from edible wild plants grown in the northern area of Japan, Cacalia delphiniifolia and Cacalia hastata, using a mutant yeast (cdc2-1 rad9Δ). It showed cytotoxicity at IC(50) = 3.4 μM and induced apoptosis against the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60 through a new stable rearrangement product (1) when in the presence of FeSO(4). This conversion mechanism is different from another sesquiterpene endoperoxide lactone compound, dihydroartemisinin (DHA), which is an anti-malarial drug. The cytotoxicity of EDBD decreased in the presence of the ferrous ion chelating drug deferoxamine mesylate (DFOM), and this suggested that the structural change of the drug caused by Fe(2+) may be responsible for its biological activities. EDBD induced apoptosis via phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in HL60 cells, and was detected by Western blot. EDBD resulted in an immediate increase in DCF fluorescence intensity in HL60 cells using DCFH-DA (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate) assay. The in vitro reaction of EDBD with FeSO(4) also increased DCF fluorescence intensity in a dose dependent manner. These results showed that the biological activity of EDBD involves an unstable carbon-centered radical intermediate. Furthermore, there was no similarity between the JFCR39 fingerprints of EDBD and DHA (correlation coefficient on COMPARE Analysis γ = 0.158). EDBD showed anti-tumor effects against a xenograft of Lox-IMVI cells in vivo.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 04/2012; 20(12):3887-97. DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2012.04.025 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Upregulation of lipogenesis is a hallmark of cancer and blocking the lipogenic pathway is known to cause tumor cell death by apoptosis. However, the exact role of lipogenesis in tumor initiation is as yet poorly understood. We examined the expression profile of key lipogenic genes in clinical samples of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of breast cancer and found that these genes were significantly upregulated in DCIS. We also isolated cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) from DCIS.com cell line using cell surface markers (CS24(-)CD44(+)ESA(+)) and found that this cell population has significantly higher tumor-initiating ability to generate DCIS compared with the non-stem-like population. Furthermore, the CSCs showed significantly higher level of expression of all lipogenic genes than the counterpart population from non-tumorigenic breast cancer cell line, MCF10A. Importantly, ectopic expression of SREBP1, the master regulator of lipogenic genes, in MCF10A significantly enhanced lipogenesis in stem-like cells and promoted cell growth as well as mammosphere formation. Moreover, SREBP1 expression significantly increased the ability of cell survival of CSCs from MCF10AT, another cell line that is capable of generating DCIS, in mouse and in cell culture. These results indicate that upregulation of lipogenesis is a pre-requisite for DCIS formation by endowing the ability of cell survival. We have also shown that resveratrol was capable of blocking the lipogenic gene expression in CSCs and significantly suppressed their ability to generate DCIS in animals, which provides us with a strong rationale to use this agent for chemoprevention against DCIS.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 December 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.519.Oncogene 12/2012; 32(42). DOI:10.1038/onc.2012.519 · 8.46 Impact Factor