Article

Presence of celiac disease epitopes in modern and old hexaploid wheat varieties: Wheat breeding may have contributed to increased prevalence of celiac disease

Plant Research International, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Impact Factor: 3.51). 11/2010; 121(8):1527-39. DOI: 10.1007/s00122-010-1408-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Gluten proteins from wheat can induce celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. Specific gluten peptides can be presented by antigen presenting cells to gluten-sensitive T-cell lymphocytes leading to CD. During the last decades, a significant increase has been observed in the prevalence of CD. This may partly be attributed to an increase in awareness and to improved diagnostic techniques, but increased wheat and gluten consumption is also considered a major cause. To analyze whether wheat breeding contributed to the increase of the prevalence of CD, we have compared the genetic diversity of gluten proteins for the presence of two CD epitopes (Glia-α9 and Glia-α20) in 36 modern European wheat varieties and in 50 landraces representing the wheat varieties grown up to around a century ago. Glia-α9 is a major (immunodominant) epitope that is recognized by the majority of CD patients. The minor Glia-α20 was included as a technical reference. Overall, the presence of the Glia-α9 epitope was higher in the modern varieties, whereas the presence of the Glia-α20 epitope was lower, as compared to the landraces. This suggests that modern wheat breeding practices may have led to an increased exposure to CD epitopes. On the other hand, some modern varieties and landraces have been identified that have relatively low contents of both epitopes. Such selected lines may serve as a start to breed wheat for the introduction of 'low CD toxic' as a new breeding trait. Large-scale culture and consumption of such varieties would considerably aid in decreasing the prevalence of CD.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Marinus J M Smulders, Aug 27, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
140 Views
  • Source
    • "In recent years, scientists have shown increasing interest in investigating nutritional differences among wheat varieties, old genotypes and ancestors due to their diverse nutrient and phytochemical composition. Research studies concerned dietary fiber content (Marotti et al., 2012), phenolics and terpenoid composition (Di Silvestro et al., 2012; Shewry et al., 2011), but strong efforts recently focused on the study of gluten proteins, a major cause of celiac disease (CD) and gluten-related pathologies (Carroccio et al., 2011; Molberg et al., 2005; van den Broeck et al., 2010). From an evolutionary point of view, gluten proteins were absent from the diet of hunter gatherers (Schnorr et al., 2014) and were introduced in human nutrition only about 10,000 years ago. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is still an undefined syndrome whose triggering mechanisms remain unsettled. This study aimed to clarify how cultured peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC) obtained from NCGS patients responded to contact with wheat proteins. Results demonstrated that wheat protein induced an overactivation of the proinflammatory chemokine CXCL10 in PBMC from NCGS patients, and that the overactivation level depends on the cereal source from which proteins are obtained. CXCL10 is able to decrease the transepithelial resistance of monolayers of normal colonocytes (NCM 460) by diminishing the mRNA expression of cadherin-1 (CDH1) and tight junction protein 2 (TJP2), two primary components of the tight junction strands. Thus, CXCL10 overactivation is one of the mechanisms triggered by wheat proteins in PBMC obtained from NCGS patients. This mechanism is activated to a greater extent by proteins from modern with respect to those extracted from ancient wheat genotypes.
    Food Chemistry 12/2014; 36. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.12.061 · 3.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "There are many hypotheses that could explain this trend, such as the higher amount of gluten ingested, its quality, the reduction of leavening time during the baking process or changes of the intestinal microbiota (Gobbetti et al., 2007; Ivarsson et al., 2000). Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of a different content of celiac disease epitopes in modern and old wheat varieties (Van den Broeck et al., 2010). Therefore, it is questionable whether there is a correlation between breeding practices and the increasing incidence of celiac disease. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gluten proteins are the basis of the rheological properties of wheat derived products, such as bread and pasta. Their particular amino acidic composition (high proline and glutamine content) is responsible for the poor gluten digestibility. Some of the high molecular weight peptides that are generated in the gastrointestinal tract are involved in an autoimmune entheropathy called celiac disease. In this work we compared the amount of peptides containing sequences involved in adaptive and immune responses, which were produced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion of prolamins extracted from different durum wheat varieties and in-bred lines. Peptides containing sequences involved in celiac disease were quantified using an isotopically labeled peptide as internal standard. The results demonstrated a very high variability in the amount of pathogenic peptides produced by different lines, showing a strong contribution of the genetic component. At the same time, the variability in total protein and gluten content was lower; the weak correlation between pathogenic peptides and the amount of gluten proteins gives rise to the possibility of a varietal selection aimed to maintain good rheological properties, but simultaneously reducing the exposure to peptides eliciting an immunological response in celiac predisposed subjects. These varieties might be useful for celiac disease prevention.
    Journal of Cereal Science 01/2013; 59(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jcs.2013.10.006 · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wheat is among the most valuable daily foodstuff items. However, it induces allergies or celiac disease in approximately 1 out of 100 persons, most often in children. In many regions, harmful Sunn bugs considerably reduce crop yield and grain quality. Climate warming provides favorable conditions for the expansion of the geographic range of these bugs and “enhances their harmfulness.” There are two major approaches to tackling this problem: genetic protection of the plant itself and genetic protection of the seed, i.e., the progeny. The former approach appears to be less risky to human health. Wheat requires protection against Sunn bugs that impairs neither the gluten rheology nor the nutritional value of the grain. The basic method is the development of an integrated system for controlling bugs that would include, in addition to technological, biological, and chemical methods, genetic protection. Taken together, these components allow the cultivation of environmentally safe wheat. It is also relevant to develop wheat cultivars with reduced contents of allergy and celiac disease determinants.
    02/2012; 2(1). DOI:10.1134/S207905971201011X
Show more