Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Reduces Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Patients Treated with Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics (Impact Factor: 4.59). 11/2007; 69(3):S10. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.07.019
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: Androgen deprivation therapy (AD) has been shown to increase late ≥ grade 2 rectal toxicity when used concurrently with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has the potential to reduce toxicity by limiting the radiation dose received by the bowel and bladder. This study compares both genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in men treated with 3DCRT+AD versus IMRT+AD. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From July 1992 to July 2004, 293 men received 3DCRT (n=170) or IMRT (n=123) with concurrent AD (< 6 months, n=123; ≥ 6 months, n =170). Median RT doses were 76 Gy for 3DCRT (ICRU) and 76 Gy for IMRT (95% to the PTV). Toxicity was assessed by a patient symptom questionnaire assessing toxicity completed at each visit and recorded using a modified late effects normal tissue task force radiation morbidity scale (LENT). RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 86 months (SD=29.3) for the 3DCRT group and 40 months (SD=9.7) for the IMRT group. Acute GI toxicity (OR=4, 95% CI: 1.6-11.7, p=0.005) was significantly higher with 3DCRT than with IMRT and was independent of AD duration (i.e. <6 vs. ≥6 months). Time to development of late GI toxicity was significantly longer in the IMRT group. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for ≥ grade 2 GI toxicity were 20% for 3DCRT versus 8% for IMRT (p=0.01). On MVA, ≥ grade 2 late GI toxicity (HR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.3, p=0.04) was more prevalent in 3DCRT patients. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to 3DCRT, IMRT significantly decreased acute and late GI toxicity in patients treated with AD.

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    ABSTRACT: Background. The benefit of dose-escalated hypofractionated radiotherapy using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in prostate cancer is not established. We report 5-year outcome and long-term toxicity data within a phase II clinical trial. Materials and Methods. 60 men with predominantly high-risk prostate cancer were treated. All patients received neoadjuvant hormone therapy, completing up to 6 months in total. Thirty patients were treated with 57 Gy in 19 fractions and 30 patients with 60 Gy in 20 fractions. Acute and 2-year toxicities were reported and patients followed longitudinally to assess 5 year outcomes and long-term toxicity. Toxicity was measured using RTOG criteria and LENT/SOMA questionnaire. Results. Median followup was 84 months. Five-year overall survival (OS) was 83% and biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) was 50% for 57 Gy. Five-year OS was 75% and bPFS 58% for 60 Gy. At 7 years, toxicity by RTOG criteria was acceptable with no grade 3 or above toxicity. Compared with baseline, there was no significant change in urinary symptoms at 2 or 7 years. Bowel symptoms were stable between 2 and 7 years. All patients continued to have significant sexual dysfunction. Conclusion. In high-risk prostate cancer, dose-escalated hypofractionated radiotherapy using IMRT results in encouraging outcomes and acceptable late toxicity.
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: To determine the cost-effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) for men with localised prostate cancer from a UK National Health Service perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A discrete event simulation model was developed to simulate the progress of patients through advancing disease states until death from prostate cancer or other causes. Clinical effectiveness data for IMRT and 3DCRT were derived from a systematic review. Four scenarios were modelled based on different clinical studies. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was undertaken and the incremental cost per quality adjusted life years (ICER) calculated. RESULTS: In scenarios where estimated survival was greater for IMRT than 3DCRT, IMRT was clearly cost-effective (ICER <£20 000). For scenarios where only a difference in late gastrointestinal toxicity was assumed, the ICER was highly sensitive to uncertain model parameters, including the magnitude of the difference, the duration of gastrointestinal toxicity and the cost difference between treatments. For the most likely scenario, a 15% difference in late gastrointestinal toxicity, the ICER was £35 000, with a 20% probability that it is cost-effective at a maximum threshold of £20 000 and a 48% probability at a threshold of £30 000. CONCLUSION: If IMRT can be used to prolong survival, it is very cost-effective. Otherwise cost-effectiveness is uncertain.
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective Phase II single-arm study gathered data on the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Four-year efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity results are presented. Between February 2004 and September 2007, 136 consecutive patients with Stage 0/I breast cancer and negative margins ≥0.2 cm were treated on protocol. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 10 equal fractions delivered twice daily. Breast pain and cosmesis were rated by patient, and cosmesis was additionally evaluated by physician per Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE v3.0) was used to grade toxicities. 136 patients (140 breasts) with median follow-up of 53.1 months (range, 8.9-83.2) were evaluated. Population characteristics included median age of 61.9 years and Tis (13.6 %), T1a (18.6 %), T1b (36.4 %), and T1c (31.4 %). Kaplan-Meier estimates at 4 years: ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence 0.7 %; contralateral breast failure 0 %; distant failure 0.9 %; overall survival 96.8 %; and cancer-specific survival 100 %. At last follow-up, patients and physicians rated cosmesis as excellent/good in 88.2 and 90.5 %, respectively; patients rated breast pain as none/mild in 97.0 %. Other observations included edema (1.4 %), telangiectasia (3.6 %), five cases of grade 1 radiation recall (3.6 %), and two cases of rib fractures (1.4 %). This analysis represents the largest cohort and longest follow-up of APBI utilizing IMRT reported to date. Four-year results continue to demonstrate excellent local control, survival, cosmetic results, and toxicity profile.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 07/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor

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