The impact of the phyto-oestrogen genistein on swine granulosa cell function.
ABSTRACT Soya and soybean products used in swine feeding contain genistein, a non-steroidal phyto-oestrogen which has been demonstrated to influence endocrine functions. This observation leads us to design this study to evaluate the effect of genistein on swine granulosa cell steroidogenesis and proliferation. In the attempt to unravel the genistein signal transduction mechanisms, we verified the effect of lavendustin, a Tyrosine Kinase (TK) inhibitor, and the potential involvement of NO/cGMP pathway. Finally, as angiogenesis is essential for follicle development, we tested the effect of the phyto-oestrogen on vascular endothelial growth factor production and on granulosa cell redox status, because free-radical species modulate neovascularization. Our data provide evidence that genistein interferes with granulosa cell steroidogenesis while it does not modulate cell growth: this effect could be at least partially produced by inhibiting TK-dependent signalling systems. On the contrary, NO/cGMP pathway or vascular endothelial growth factor production can be excluded as signalling mechanism involved in phyto-oestrogen effects. Remarkably, genistein stimulates hydrogen peroxide production thus potentially inhibiting follicular angiogenesis. Collectively, these results suggest that genistein consumption could potentially negatively impact swine reproductive function.
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ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence to indicate that a substantial number of both man-made and naturally occurring chemicals are disruptive to human and wildlife reproductive health. Currently, reproductive toxicology testing is primarily carried out in vivo, however, in the past 50 years, various culture methods have been developed with the aim of growing ovarian follicles in vitro. These culture systems have become a widely used tool in reproductive biology and toxicology. In this review we describe how reproductive toxicology of the ovary is greatly enhanced by in vitro studies. Experiments using in vitro ovarian cultures to understand or detect damage to the ovary itself and to its specialised structures of the follicles and oocytes, allows for faster screening of potential developmental and/or reproductive toxicants.Reproductive Toxicology 01/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Daidzein, a phytoestrogen present in soybean products used in swine feed, has been demonstrated to affect both reproductive and endocrine functions. The aims of this study were to examine the in vitro effects of daidzein on (1) progesterone (P4) and oestradiol (E2) secretion by porcine luteinised granulosa cells harvested from medium follicles, and (2) the mRNA and protein expression of oestrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ) in these cells. The influence of E2 on P4 secretion and ERα and ERβ expression in the granulosa cells of pigs was also investigated. It was found that daidzein inhibited progesterone secretion by luteinised granulosa cells isolated from medium follicles. In contrast, E2 did not affect progesterone production by these cells. Moreover, daidzein did not alter the granulosal secretion of E2. Both daidzein and E2 decreased mRNA expression of ERα in the cells examined. The expression of ERβ mRNA was not affected by daidzein but was inhibited by E2. ERα protein was not detected while ERβ protein was found in the nuclei of the cells. Daidzein and E2 upregulated the expression of ERβ protein in the cells. In summary, the phytoestrogen daidzein directly affected the porcine ovary by inhibiting progesterone production and increasing ERβ protein expression. Daidzein-induced changes in follicular steroidogenesis and granulosal sensitivity to oestrogens may disturb reproductive processes in pigs.Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 03/2013; 61(1):85-98. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biochanin A, similar to other isoflavones, is present in soy and soy-based food, but predominantly in red clover. Red clover extract and biochanin A were reported to affect reproductive processes as well as to demonstrate menopause relief and anticancerogenic properties. Because porcine granulosa cells provide a suitable in vitro model for studying the intracellular mechanism of phytoestrogen action in the ovary, the objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of biochanin A on the following: (1) progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) secretion by granulosa cells, (2) viability of the granulosa cells, and (3) mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) in the granulosa cells harvested from both medium (3-6 mm) and large (≥8 mm) porcine ovarian follicles. RIA, alamarBlue assay, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunocytochemistry were used in the study to address the objectives. Biochanin A significantly inhibited P4 and did not affect E2 secretion by porcine granulosa cells regardless of the size of follicles that served as the source of the cells. Cell viability was not affected by the treatment. Biochanin A did not alter ERα and ERβ mRNA levels in the cultured porcine granulosa cells. In contrast, this isoflavone increased (P < 0.05) the immunoexpression of ERβ in the cells from both follicle types. In summary, biochanin A, similar to genistein and daidzein, affects follicular steroidogenesis and ER expression. Its effect on ERβ protein was more intense compared with other previously examined phytoestrogens.Theriogenology 08/2013; · 2.08 Impact Factor