Correlates of mucosal immunity and upper respiratory tract infections in girls.
ABSTRACT In this study we examined whether salivary hormones, physical activity and adiposity were correlated with secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and frequency of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in 43 early-pubertal and 59 late-pubertal girls. Physical activity was measured using accelerometers and relative body fat was assessed using bioelectrical impendence. Resting saliva samples were obtained between 1500 and 1800 hr and assayed for sIgA, cortisol and testosterone. Participants completed a one-month health log to record URTI frequency. Early-pubertal girls were more physically active, had less adiposity, but lower concentrations of sIgA than late-pubertal adolescents (122.7 +/- 91.6 vs 201.9 +/- 102.9 pg/ml, respectively). The frequency of URTI was similar in the two groups. Neither sIgA nor URTI were correlated with salivary hormones, physical activity or adiposity within the early-pubertal girls. In the late-pubertal group, sIgA was negatively associated (r = -0.44; p < 0.05) with cortisol, and positively associated (r = 0.41; p < 0.05) with the testosterone to cortisol ratio. These results suggest that mucosal immunity increases with pubertal maturation, while higher cortisol is associated with lower mucosal immunity in adolescents.
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ABSTRACT: Despite the widespread assumption that hormones stimulate motivation for sexual behavior in adolescence, no published empirical studies have demonstrated this link. In a cross-sectional study of 78 females in the eighth, ninth, and tenth grades in public schools, we show that hormones have effects on sexual motivation and behavior. Comparison with previous results from a parallel sample of males indicates that for both sexes these effects are primarily androgenic in origin and for the most part exert their effects directly rather than through the social interpretation of age and hormone-induced pubertal development.Demography 06/1986; 23(2):217-30. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pubertal development of 200 normal girls, 7--17 years of age, was investigated in a partly longitudinal manner with two examinations 1.5 years apart. Samples from postmenarchal girls were taken on days 6--9 and 20--23 of the menstrual cycle. Serum pregnenolone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, oestradiol and cortisol as well as ACTH, FSH, LH and prolactin were measured radioimmunologically and were related to bone age, breast and pubic hair developmental stages, and gynaecological age. In the samples of premenarchal girls as well as the follicular phase of postmenarchal girls the concentration of all the steroids increased with age. Of all the steroids measured, serum dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone displayed the earlier increase, from the youngest age group of 7.5 years onwards. Serum oestradiol testosterone and androstenedione in creased rapidly from the bone age group of 9.5 years (subjects 9.0--9.9 years of age) onwards, in close association with the appearance of the first physical signs of puberty. A marked increase in these three steroids continued until 13.5 years, the age at which menarche took place. Menarche was followed by a plateau of 1--2 years duration and then a second increase took place up to the two oldest age groups (17.5 and 18.5 years bone age), a trend seen in the follicular phase levels of all the steroids measured. The 5 alpha-dihydrotesterone/testosterone ratio decreased with increasing testosterone concentration. Serum oestradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and FSH showed no overlapping in the 2.5--97.5% range of concentrations and androsterone and LH in the 16--84% range between prepubertal and postmenarchal subjects. Pregnenolone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotesterone, cortisol, ACTH and prolactin overlapped even in the 16--84% range between these two groups of subjects. In postmenarchal girls, about 80% of the cycles were anovulatory in the first year after menarche, 50% in the third and 10% in the sixth year. The background of the majority of the anovulatory cycles seems to be a physiological variant of the pattern seen in the polycystic ovary syndrome: the levels of testosterone, and androstenedione and LH were increased in anovulatory cycles compared to ovulatory ones.Clinical Endocrinology 03/1980; 12(2):107-20. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An imbalance between the overall strain experienced during exercise training and the athlete's tolerance of such effort may induce overreaching or overtraining syndrome. Overtraining syndrome is characterised by diminished sport-specific physical performance, accelerated fatiguability and subjective symptoms of stress. Overtraining is feared by athletes yet there is a lack of objective parameters suitable for its diagnosis and prevention. In addition to the determination of substrates (e.g. lactate, ammonia and urea) and enzymes (e.g. creatine kinase), the possibilities for monitoring of training by measuring hormonal levels in blood are currently being investigated. Endogenous hormones are essential for physiological reactions and adaptations during physical work and influence the recovery phase after exercise by modulating anabolic and catabolic processes. Testosterone and cortisol are playing a significant role in metabolism of protein as well as carbohydrate metabolism. Both are competitive agonists at the receptor level of muscular cells. The testosterone/cortisol ratio is used as an indication of the anabolic/catabolic balance. This ratio decreases in relation to the intensity and duration of physical exercise, as well as during periods of intense training or repetitive competition, and can be reversed by regenerative measures. Correlations have been noted with the training-induced changes of strength. However, it seems more likely that the testosterone/cortisol ratio indicates the actual physiological strain in training, rather than overtraining syndrome. The sympatho-adrenergic system might be involved in the pathogenesis of overtraining. Overtraining appears as a disturbed autonomic regulation, which in its parasympathicotonic form shows a diminished maximal secretion of catecholamines, combined with an impaired full mobilisation of anaerobic lactic reserves. This is supposed to lead to decreased maximal blood lactate levels and maximal performance. Free plasma adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) may provide additional information for the monitoring of endurance training. While prolonged aerobic exercise conducted at intensities below the individual anaerobic threshold lead to a moderate rise of sympathetic activity, workloads exceeding this threshold are characterised by a disproportionate increase in the levels of catecholamines. In addition, psychological stress during competitive events is characterised by a higher catecholamines to lactate ratio in comparison with training exercise sessions. Thus, the frequency of training sessions with higher anaerobic lactic demands or of competition, should be carefully limited in order to prevent overtraining syndrome. In the state of overtraining syndrome and overreaching, respectively, an intraindividually decreased maximum rise of pituitary hormones (corticotrophin, growth hormone), cortisol and insulin has been found after a standardised exhaustive exercise test performed with an intensity of 10% above the individual anaerobic threshold.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)Sports Medicine 11/1995; 20(4):251-76. · 5.24 Impact Factor