An ultra-high throughput cell-based screen for wee1 degradation inhibitors.
ABSTRACT The tyrosine kinase Wee1 is part of a key cellular sensing mechanism that signals completion of DNA replication, ensuring proper timing of entry into mitosis. Wee1 acts as an inhibitor of mitotic entry by phosphorylating cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1. Wee1 activity is mainly regulated at the protein level through its phosphorylation and subsequent degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. To facilitate identification of small molecules preventing Wee1 degradation, a homogeneous cell-based assay was developed using HeLa cells transiently transfected with a Wee1-luciferase fusion protein. To ensure ultra-high-throughput screening (uHTS) compatibility, the assay was scaled to a 1536-well plate format and cells were transfected in bulk and cryopreserved. This miniaturized homogeneous assay demonstrated robust performance, with a calculated Z' factor of 0.65 +/- 0.05. The assay was screened against a publicly available library of approximately 218,000 compounds to identify Wee1 stabilizers. Nonselective, cytotoxic, and promiscuous compounds were rapidly triaged through the use of a similarly formatted counterscreen that measured stabilization of an N-cyclin B-luciferase fusion protein, as well as execution of viability assessment in the parental HeLa cell line. This screening campaign led to the discovery of 4 unrelated cell-permeable small molecules that showed selective Wee1-luciferase stabilization with micromolar potency. One of these compounds, SID4243143 (ML 118), was shown to inhibit cell cycle progression, underscoring the importance of Wee1 degradation to the cell cycle. Results suggest that this uHTS approach is suitable for identifying selective chemical probes that prevent Wee1 degradation and generally applicable to discovering inhibitors of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway.
Article: The anaphase promoting complex induces substrate degradation during neuronal differentiation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The anaphase promoting complex (APC) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase required for the metaphase-to-anaphase transition and mitotic exit. However, APC also plays roles in G(1), where it is regulated by Cdh1, and APC activity has also been detected in differentiated and non-proliferating cells, suggesting that it may play roles outside the cell cycle. Here, we report that disrupting APC(Cdh1) activity inhibits neurite outgrowth of both PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and primary cerebellar granule cells. APC(Cdh1) activity dramatically increases as PC12 cells differentiate in response to nerve growth factor. Furthermore, a key target degraded by APC(Cdh1) following nerve growth factor treatment is the F-box protein Skp2, and APC(Cdh1)-mediated destruction of Skp2 is essential for proper terminal differentiation of neuronal precursors.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2009; 284(7):4317-23. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Systems-level dissection of the cell-cycle oscillator: bypassing positive feedback produces damped oscillations.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cell-cycle oscillator includes an essential negative-feedback loop: Cdc2 activates the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which leads to cyclin destruction and Cdc2 inactivation. Under some circumstances, a negative-feedback loop is sufficient to generate sustained oscillations. However, the Cdc2/APC system also includes positive-feedback loops, whose functional importance we now assess. We show that short-circuiting positive feedback makes the oscillations in Cdc2 activity faster, less temporally abrupt, and damped. This compromises the activation of cyclin destruction and interferes with mitotic exit and DNA replication. This work demonstrates a systems-level role for positive-feedback loops in the embryonic cell cycle and provides an example of how oscillations can emerge out of combinations of subcircuits whose individual behaviors are not oscillatory. This work also underscores the fundamental similarity of cell-cycle oscillations in embryos to repetitive action potentials in pacemaker neurons, with both systems relying on a combination of negative and positive-feedback loops.Cell 09/2005; 122(4):565-78. · 32.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cyclin B1 has an important role in the G2-M phase transition of the cell cycle. Wee1 delays mitosis by suppressing the activity of the Cyclin B1/cdc2 complex. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Cyclin B1 and Wee1 expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An immunohistochemical assessment of Cyclin B1 and Wee1 expression was performed in 79 patients with NSCLC. The expression of Cyclin B1 was correlated with differentiation (P = 0.0423) and vascular invasion (P = 0.001). Patients with overexpression of Cyclin B1 had higher mean values for both the Ki-67 proliferative index (Ki-Index) (P <0.0001) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index (PCNA-LI) (P <0.0001), and a poorer prognosis (P = 0.0068). Patients lacking expression of Wee1 had a higher recurrence rate (P = 0.0084) and a poorer prognosis (P = 0.0457), and tended to have higher Ki-Index and PCNA-LI values. Multivariate analysis suggested that both Cyclin B1 (P = 0.0244) and Wee1 (P = 0.0444) expression were significant prognostic factors. These findings suggest that Cyclin B1 expression could be a significant prognostic parameter in NSCLC. The loss of Wee1 expression may have a potential role in promoting tumor progression and may be a significant prognostic indicator in NSCLC.Annals of Oncology 02/2004; 15(2):252-6. · 6.43 Impact Factor