Hollow core of Alzheimer's Abeta42 amyloid observed by cryoEM is relevant at physiological pH.
ABSTRACT Recent cryoEM density maps of Abeta(42) fibrils obtained at low pH revealed two protofilaments winding around a hollow core raising the question if such tubular structures also exist at physiological pH. Based on the cryoEM measurements and on NMR data, we probe amyloid fibril organizations corresponding to the observed cryoEM density map. Our study demonstrates that the tubular Abeta(42) fibril models exist at both acidic and physiological pH; however, the relative populations of the polymorphic models shift with pH. At acidic pH, the hollow core model exhibits higher population than the other models; at physiological pH, although it is less populated compared to the other models, structurally, it is stable and represents 8% of the population. We observe that only models with C termini facing the external surface of the fibril retain the hollow core under acidic and physiological conditions with dimensions similar to those observed by cryoEM; on the other hand, the hydrophobic effect shrinks the tubular cavity in the alternative organization. The existence of the hollow core fibril at physiological pH emphasizes the need to examine toxic effects of minor oligomeric species with unique organizations.
Article: Insight into the stability of cross-β amyloid fibril from VEALYL short peptide with molecular dynamics simulation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Amyloid fibrils are found in many fatal neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type II diabetes, and prion disease. The VEALYL short peptide from insulin has been confirmed to aggregate amyloid-like fibrils. However, the aggregation mechanism of amyloid fibril is poorly understood. Here, we utilized molecular dynamics simulation to analyse the stability of VEALYL hexamer. The statistical results indicate that hydrophobic residues play key roles in stabilizing VEALYL hexamer. Single point and two linkage mutants confirmed that Val1, Leu4, and Tyr5 of VEALYL are key residues. The consistency of the results for the VEALYL oligomer suggests that the intermediate states might be trimer (3-0) and pentamer(3-2). These results can help us to obtain an insight into the aggregation mechanism of amyloid fibril. These methods can be used to study the stability of amyloid fibril from other short peptides.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e36382. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Synergistic interactions between repeats in tau protein and Aβ amyloids may be responsible for accelerated aggregation via polymorphic states.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles simultaneously accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is known that Aβ and tau exist together in the mitochondria; however, the interactions between Aβ oligomers and tau are controversial. Moreover, it is still unclear which specific domains in the tau protein can interact with Aβ oligomers and what could be the effect of these interactions. Herein, we examine three different Aβ-tau oligomeric complexes. These complexes present interactions of Aβ with three domains in the tau protein; all contain high β-structure propensity in their R2, R3, and R4 repeats. Our results show that, among these, Aβ oligomers are likely to interact with the R2 domain to form a stable complex with better alignment in the turn region and the β-structure domain. We therefore propose that the R2 domain can interact with soluble Aβ oligomers and consequently promote aggregation. EM and AFM images and dimensions revealed highly polymorphic tau aggregates. We suggest that the polymorphic tau and Aβ-tau aggregates may be largely due to repeat sequences which are prone to variable turn locations along the tau repeats.Biochemistry 06/2011; 50(23):5172-81. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Misfolding and self-assembly of Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides into amyloid fibrils is pathologically linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Polymorphic Aβ structures derived from monomers to intermediate oligomers, protofilaments, and mature fibrils have been often observed in solution. Some aggregates are on-pathway species to amyloid fibrils, while the others are off-pathway species that do not evolve into amyloid fibrils. Both on-pathway and off-pathway species could be biologically relevant species. But, the lack of atomic-level structural information for these Aβ species leads to the difficulty in the understanding of their biological roles in amyloid toxicity and amyloid formation. Here, we model a series of molecular structures of Aβ globulomers assembled by monomer and dimer building blocks using our peptide-packing program and explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Structural and energetic analysis shows that although Aβ globulomers could adopt different energetically favorable but structurally heterogeneous conformations in a rugged energy landscape, they are still preferentially organized by dynamic dimeric subunits with a hydrophobic core formed by the C-terminal residues independence of initial peptide packing and organization. Such structural organizations offer high structural stability by maximizing peptide-peptide association and optimizing peptide-water solvation. Moreover, curved surface, compact size, and less populated β-structure in Aβ globulomers make them difficult to convert into other high-order Aβ aggregates and fibrils with dominant β-structure, suggesting that they are likely to be off-pathway species to amyloid fibrils. These Aβ globulomers are compatible with experimental data in overall size, subunit organization, and molecular weight from AFM images and H/D amide exchange NMR. Our computationally modeled Aβ globulomers provide useful insights into structure, dynamics, and polymorphic nature of Aβ globulomers which are completely different from Aβ fibrils, suggesting that these globulomers are likely off-pathway species and explaining the independence of the aggregation kinetics between Aβ globulomers and fibrils.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e20575. · 4.09 Impact Factor