Epidemiologic and animal studies revealed that capsaicin can act as a carcinogen or cocarcinogen. However, the molecular mechanisms of the cancer-promoting effects of capsaicin are not clear. Here, we report that capsaicin has a cocarcinogenic effect on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin carcinogenesis in vivo and is mediated through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), but not the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1). Topical application of capsaicin on the dorsal skin of 7,12-dimetylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated and TPA-promoted TRPV1 wild-type (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice induced more and larger skin tumors in TRPV1/KO mice, suggesting a TRPV1-independent mechanism. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was highly elevated by capsaicin treatment in tumors and murine embryonic fibroblasts from TRPV1/KO mice. Inhibitors of EGFR/MEK signaling suppressed TPA/capsaicin-induced COX-2 expression in TRPV1/KO cells, indicating that activation of EGFR and its downstream signaling is involved in COX-2 elevation. Capsaicin induced a further induction of TPA-increased COX-2 expression in EGFR/WT cells, but not in EGFR/KO cells. TPA/capsaicin cotreatment caused EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation and activated EGFR downstream signaling, including ERKs and Akt in EGFR/WT, but not EGFR/KO cells. Specific inhibition of EGFR and TRPV1 indicated that capsaicin-induced ERK activation in A431 cells was dependent on EGFR, but not TRPV1. Together, these findings suggest that capsaicin might act as a cocarcinogen in TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis through EGFR-dependent mechanisms.
"The EGFR signaling pathway is associated with metastatic properties, including cell motility, adhesion, and invasion in vitro[41,42]. EGFR activates intracellular signaling cascades, including Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt, and subsequently controls proliferation, migration, and apoptosis . Activation of NF-κB and AP-1 is centrally involved in the induction of the MMP-9 gene associated with the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells by different agents, including TPA and growth factors, such as EGF [27,44,45]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genistein (Gen) exhibits anti-mutagenic and anti-metastatic activities in hepatoma cell lines. Gen has suppressive effects on tumor growth and angiogenesis in nude mice. Gen suppresses the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9; however, the mechanism underlying its anti-invasive activity on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells is unclear.
In this study, the possible mechanisms underlying Gen-mediated reduction of 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cell invasion and inhibition of secreted and cytosolic MMP-9 production in human hepatoma cells (HepG2, Huh-7, and HA22T) and murine embryonic liver cells (BNL CL2) were investigated.
Gen suppressed MMP-9 transcription by inhibiting activator protein (AP)-1 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activity. Gen suppressed TPA-induced AP-1 activity through inhibitory phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways, and TPA-stimulated inhibition of NF-kappaB nuclear translocation through IkappaB inhibitory signaling pathways. Moreover, Gen suppressed TPA-induced activation of ERK/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt upstream of NF-kappaB and AP-1.
Gen and its inhibition of multiple signal transduction pathways can control the invasiveness and metastatic potential of HCC.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 14(1):26. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-26 · 2.02 Impact Factor
"Even if Resv induces apoptosis in cancer cells it would not compulsory lead to cancer chemoprevention, like in the case of capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), an apoptosis inducer in a number of cancer cells, which may act as carcinogen/cocarcinogen. For example, capsaicin promoted 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin carcinogenesis through activation of EGFR-dependent mechanisms . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-inflammatory and skin tumour preventing effects of resveratrol have been extensively studied pre-clinically and resveratrol has been proposed for clinical investigations. To provide a basis or/and limitations for topical administration to human skin, molecular mechanisms underlying resveratrol effects towards normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) were evaluated. NHEK were challenged by either resveratrol alone or by its combination with TNFalpha or TGFalpha, and time-dependent molecular events were monitored. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) expression and its mRNA stability, ERK1/2, p65/RelA, and EGFR phosphorylation were determined. Intracellular distribution of EGFR/P-EGFR was measured in the membrane, cytoplasmic, and nuclear fractions. Specific DNA binding activity of NFκB (p65/RelA) and AP-1(c-Fos), NHEK proliferation, and molecular markers of apoptosis/cell cycle were detected. Resveratrol induced delayed, long-lasting and steadily growing IL-8 gene and protein over-expression as well as enhanced EGFR phosphorylation, both abrogated by the EGFR kinase inhibitor PD168393. However, resveratrol did not act as a phosphatase inhibitor. ERK phosphorylation was transiently inhibited at early time-points and activated at 6–24 h. Accordingly, c-Fos-specific DNA binding was increased by resveratrol. Cellular distribution of EGFR/P-EGFR was shifted to membrane and nucleus while cytosolic levels were reduced concomitant with enhanced degradation. Notwithstanding high nuclear levels of EGFR/P-EGFR, spontaneous and TGFalpha-triggered cell proliferation was strongly suppressed by resveratrol mainly through cell cycle arrest.
Resveratrol synergized with TNFα in the induction of delayed, long-lasting IL-8 expression through sustained EGFR-ERK axis activation. The time course indicates that resveratrol metabolites could be implicated. Topical administration of Resv to psoriatic patients over-expressing TNFα, IL-8 and EGFR-ERK in the skin should be cautiously considered. Since high nuclear levels of EGFR correspond to increased risk of tumorigenesis, chronic resveratrol application to the skin may be potentially dangerous. Wound healing acceleration by resveratrol could not be envisaged due to its anti-proliferative effects towards normal keratinocytes.
PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e59632. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059632 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"These comprise a plethora of phytochemicals including benzoic acids, cinnamic acids and flavonoids that have been shown to have variable effects on biomarkers of human health, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities  . Conversely some of these compounds can be toxic, including acting as co-carcinogens  . These compounds are predominantly found esterified to other plant components, including sugars and complex carbohydrates. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant secondary metabolites, such as phenolic acids are commonly associated with benefits for human health. Two of the most abundant phenylpropanoid-derived compounds detected in human faecal samples are phenylacetic acid (PAA) and 4-hydroxylphenylacetic acid (4-hydroxyPAA). Although they have the potential to be derived from diets rich in plant-based foods, evidence suggests that these compounds can be derived from the microbial fermentation of aromatic amino acids (AAAs) in the colon.
To identify the bacteria responsible, 26 strains representing 25 of the dominant human colonic species were screened for phenyl metabolite formation. Seven strains produced significant amounts of both PAA and 4-hydroxyPAA. These included five out of seven Bacteroidetes (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides eggerthii, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides fragilis, Parabacteroides distasonis), and two out of 17 Firmicutes (Eubacterium hallii and Clostridium bartlettii). These species also produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the corresponding tryptophan metabolite, but C. bartlettii showed 100 times higher IAA production than the other six strains. Four strains were further tested and PAA formation was substantially increased by phenylalanine, 4-hydroxyPAA by tyrosine and IAA by tryptophan.
This study demonstrates that certain microbial species have the ability to ferment all three AAAs and that protein fermentation is the likely source of major phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites in the colon.
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