Article

Childhood body mass index and adult pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic risk factors: data from the New Delhi birth cohort.

Department of Cardiac Biochemistry, Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
International Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 9.2). 02/2011; 40(1):102-11. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyq121
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Weight gain and growth in early life may influence adult pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic cardiovascular risk factors.
Follow-up of a birth cohort in New Delhi, India, whose weight and height were measured every 6 months until age 21 years. Body mass index (BMI) at birth, during infancy (2 years), childhood (11 years) and adulthood (26-32 years) and BMI gain between these ages were analysed in 886 men and 640 women with respect to adult fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations.
All the pro-inflammatory/pro-thrombotic risk factors were higher in participants with higher adiposity. In women, BMI at birth and age 2 years was inversely related to fibrinogen (P = 0.002 and 0.05) and, after adjusting for adult adiposity, to hsCRP (P = 0.02 and 0.009). After adjusting for adult adiposity, BMI at 2 years was inversely related to hsCRP and PAI-1 concentrations (P < 0.001 and 0.02) in men. BMI gain between 2 and 11 years and/or 11 years to adulthood was positively associated with fibrinogen and hsCRP in women and with hsCRP and PAI-1 in men.
Thinness at birth or during infancy, and accelerated BMI gain during childhood/adolescence are associated with a pro-inflammatory/pro-thrombotic state in adult life. An altered inflammatory state could be one link between small newborn/infant size and adult cardiovascular disease. Associations between pro-inflammatory markers and childhood/adolescent BMI gain are probably mediated through adult adiposity.

1 Follower
 · 
104 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between young adulthood obesity and long-term risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and nonischemic congestive heart failure (CHF). We conducted a population-based cohort study of 12,850 male conscripts whose fitness for military service was examined by Draft Boards in Northern Denmark. Outcomes were obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry, covering all Danish hospitals since 1977. Follow-up began on the 22nd birthday of each subject and continued until occurrence of an outcome, emigration, death, or on December 31, 2012, whichever came first. We used Cox regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs). The 36-year risk was 7.3% for IHD and 0.8% for CHF without pre-existing IHD among men of normal weight and 11.1% and 4.0% among obese men, respectively. Comparing obese men with men of normal weight, the adjusted HR was 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-2.73) for IHD overall, 2.86 (95% CI, 1.56-5.25) for myocardial infarction, 5.52 (95% CI, 2.38-12.82) for unstable angina, 1.29 (95% CI, 0.69-2.41) for stable angina, and 6.68 (95% CI, 2.85-15.66) for CHF without pre-existing IHD. Young adulthood obesity was an important risk factor for IHD but also for CHF without pre-existing IHD.
    Annals of epidemiology 05/2014; 24(5):356-361.e1. DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.01.011 · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Undernutrition in early life has been reported to be closely associated with the development of non-communicable diseases in adulthood. Adequate treatment is important for reversing these effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of undernutrition and anthropometric recovery on the weights and heights of children in relation to the concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). A total of 119 children (aged 6-16 years) from the slums of São Paulo were selected according to their nutritional status and divided into three groups as follows: control (healthy without intervention, n 38) with a height-for-age Z score (HAZ) and a BMI-for-age Z score (BAZ) > - 1·6; undernourished (HAZ and/or BAZ < - 1·6, n 54); recovered from undernutrition (after treatment in a rehabilitation centre; HAZ and BAZ > - 1·6, n 27). Blood samples were collected to determine insulin, glucose, leptin, adiponectin and PAI-1 concentrations. Leptin concentrations in the undernourished group were lower than those in the control and recovered groups (mean 0·92 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·25), 2·03 (95 % CI 1·46, 2·82) and 1·66 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·44) ng/ml, P= 0·003), which had similar leptin concentrations. There were no differences in adiponectin and PAI-1 concentrations among the groups. A positive correlation between waist circumference and leptin concentrations was observed in all the girls and boys of the control group (control: r 0·729, P< 0·01; undernourished: r 0·490, P< 0·05; and recovered: r 0·829, P< 0·01; r 0·673, P< 0·05). Stronger correlations between leptin and insulin concentrations were observed in the recovered group. The results of the present study indicate that normal leptin concentrations are found when normal height and weight are achieved.
    British Journal Of Nutrition 07/2014; 112(6):1-8. DOI:10.1017/S0007114514001743 · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Inflammation may constitute an underlying mechanism for increased risk of developing chronic diseases in later years, but few prospective studies have assessed the influence of low-grade inflammation on body weight gain, particularly among children in low-to middle-income settings with lower prevalence of overweight and obesity. We aimed to investigate whether C-reactive protein (CRP), as a biomarker of low-grade inflammation, predicts changes in body mass index-for-age z scores (BAZ) during childhood. Methods: A population-based longitudinal study was conducted in the Brazilian Amazon among children aged <= 10 years in 2007, with follow-up visits in 2009 and 2012. Outcome was annual change in BAZ. As the main exposure of interest, CRP concentrations were divided into four categories, with values <1 mg/L divided in tertiles plus a fourth category with values ranging from 1 to 10 mg/L. Children were simultaneously screened for iron and vitamin A deficiencies, diarrhea, and wheezing. We used mixed-effect linear regression models to measure the effect of CRP concentrations on annual BAZ change and linear regression models to explore CRP predictors at baseline. Results: At baseline, 1007 children had CRP and anthropometric data [ mean (SD) age: 5.3 (2.9) years; 50.9% male, 84.5% mulatto/mixed-race, 14.0% at risk for overweight or obesity, 4.8% stunted]; 737 were successfully followed up. Morbidities and nutritional deficiencies were widespread. Among participants aged >5 years, children in the highest tertile of CRP <1 mg/L at baseline, regarded as an indicator of low-grade inflammation, had a 0.04 z/y higher gain in BAZ (95% CI: 0.01, 0.09 z/y) during follow-up. CRP was positively associated with household poverty and worse nutritional indicators. Conclusions: We found evidence of a role for low-grade inflammation in predicting annual BAZ gain among children aged >5 years.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090357 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
8 Downloads
Available from
Aug 13, 2014

Similar Publications