Anti-inflammatory effects of excessive weight loss: potent suppression of adipose interleukin 6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha expression
ABSTRACT Severe obesity is a chronic inflammatory disease where various cytokines/adipocytokines play a key role. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) are produced by human adipose tissue dependent on the degree of obesity. Mouse studies suggest a key role of adipose tissue-derived IL-6 in hepatic insulin resistance via modification of liver suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS-3) expression.
We examined the effect of excessive weight loss on systemic levels, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and liver expression of IL-6 and TNFalpha in 20 severely obese patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Furthermore, we studied liver expression of SOCS3, an important regulator of insulin resistance, and fat tissue expression of the anti-inflammatory adipocytokine adiponectin and its receptors. Serum and tissue samples were collected before and 6 months after LAGB surgery.
IL-6/TNFalpha mRNA expression before weight loss were similar in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and much higher compared to hepatic expression. Subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression of both pro-inflammatory cytokines, but especially of IL-6 decreased dramatically after extensive weight loss whereas expression of adiponectin and its receptors increased. Weight loss also led to a significant reduction in liver IL-6 expression, whereas liver TNFalpha mRNA expression did not change. IL-6 and C-reactive protein serum levels decreased after weight loss whereas TNFalpha serum levels were below the detection limit before and after surgery. These effects were paralleled by reduced hepatic SOCS3 expression and improved insulin resistance 6 months after LAGB surgery.
Expression of IL-6 and TNFalpha mRNA is more pronounced in adipose compared to liver tissue in patients with severe obesity. Our results highlight excessive weight loss as a successful anti-inflammatory strategy.
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ABSTRACT: Whole-genome genotyping and gene expression analyses in blood of 22 BMS and 23 AMS offspring from 19 mothers were conducted using Illumina HumanOmni-5-Quad and HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChips, respectively. Using PLINK we analyzed interactions between offspring gene variations and maternal surgical status on offspring gene expression levels. Altered biological functions and pathways were identified and visualized using DAVID and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Significant interactions (p ≤ 1.22x10-12) were found for 525 among the 16,060 expressed transcripts: 1.9% of tested SNPs were involved. Gene function and pathway analysis demonstrated enrichment of transcription and of cellular metabolism functions and overrepresentation of cellular stress and signaling, immune response, inflammation, growth, proliferation and development pathways. We suggest that impaired maternal gestational metabolic fitness interacts with offspring gene variations modulating gene expression levels, providing potential mechanisms explaining improved cardiometabolic risk profiles of AMS offspring related to ameliorated maternal lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0117011. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117011 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent form of human hepatic disease and feeding mice a High-Fat, High-Caloric (HFHC) diet is a standard model of NAFLD. To better understand the genetic basis of NAFLD, we conducted an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis of mice fed a HFHC diet. 265 (A/J × C57BL/6J) F2 male mice were fed a HFHC diet for 8 weeks. eQTL analysis was utilized to identify genomic regions that regulate hepatic gene expression of Xbp1s and Socs3. We identified two overlapping loci for Xbp1s and Socs3 on Chr 1 (164.0-185.4 Mb and 174.4-190.5 Mb, respectively) and Chr 11 (41.1-73.1 Mb and 44.0-68.6 Mb, respectively), and an additional locus for Socs3 on Chr 12 (109.9-117.4 Mb). C57BL/6J-Chr 11(A/J)/ NaJ mice fed a HFHC diet manifested the A/J phenotype of increased Xbp1s and Socs3 gene expression (P < 0.05), while C57BL/6J-Chr 1(A/J)/ NaJ mice retained the C57BL/6J phenotype. In addition, we replicated the eQTLs on Chr 1 and 12 (LOD scores ≥ 3.5) using mice from the BXD murine reference panel challenged with CCl4 to induce chronic liver injury and fibrosis. We have identified overlapping eQTLs for Xbp1 and Socs3 on Chr 1 and 11, and consomic mice confirmed that replacing the C57BL/6J Chr 11 with the A/J Chr 11 resulted in an A/J phenotype for Xbp1 and Socs3 gene expression. Identification of the genes for these eQTLs will lead to a better understanding of the genetic factors responsible for NAFLD and potentially other hepatic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Author et al.G3-Genes Genomes Genetics 01/2015; 5(4). DOI:10.1534/g3.115.016626 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The approaches to alleviate low-grade systemic inflammation during postprandial period are still controversial at present. The aims of this article were to review the possible negative effects of postprandial inflammation and to provide potential way to prevent the risks to health during postprandial period through understanding the possible mechanism. Postprandial inflammation may lead to chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. Previous evidence showed that consumption of saturated fats, the elevation of circulating free fatty acids and high levels of blood glucose may lead to increased postprandial inflammation via activated NF-κB pathway, whereas, dietary with low GI, low saturated fats, and fiber-rich appeared to attenuate the postprandial inflammatory responses via down-regulating the NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, it has been suggested that weight loss may successfully lead to a significant reduction in postprandial inflammatory responses. Many studies indicated that exercise served as anti-inflammatory, however no sufficient and convincing evidence proves that exercise alleviated the subsequent postprandial inflammatory responses to date. Therefore, more studies are warranted to investigate the possible mechanisms of how different exercises and diet/meal/nutrients affect low-grade systemic inflammation.Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research 09/2013; 11(4):129-136. · 0.19 Impact Factor