Anti-inflammatory effects of excessive weight loss: Potent suppression of adipose interleukin 6 and tumour necrosis factor a expression

Christian Doppler Research Laboratory for Gut Inflammation and Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
Gut (Impact Factor: 13.32). 09/2010; 59(9):1259-64. DOI: 10.1136/gut.2010.214577
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Severe obesity is a chronic inflammatory disease where various cytokines/adipocytokines play a key role. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) are produced by human adipose tissue dependent on the degree of obesity. Mouse studies suggest a key role of adipose tissue-derived IL-6 in hepatic insulin resistance via modification of liver suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS-3) expression.
We examined the effect of excessive weight loss on systemic levels, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and liver expression of IL-6 and TNFalpha in 20 severely obese patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Furthermore, we studied liver expression of SOCS3, an important regulator of insulin resistance, and fat tissue expression of the anti-inflammatory adipocytokine adiponectin and its receptors. Serum and tissue samples were collected before and 6 months after LAGB surgery.
IL-6/TNFalpha mRNA expression before weight loss were similar in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and much higher compared to hepatic expression. Subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression of both pro-inflammatory cytokines, but especially of IL-6 decreased dramatically after extensive weight loss whereas expression of adiponectin and its receptors increased. Weight loss also led to a significant reduction in liver IL-6 expression, whereas liver TNFalpha mRNA expression did not change. IL-6 and C-reactive protein serum levels decreased after weight loss whereas TNFalpha serum levels were below the detection limit before and after surgery. These effects were paralleled by reduced hepatic SOCS3 expression and improved insulin resistance 6 months after LAGB surgery.
Expression of IL-6 and TNFalpha mRNA is more pronounced in adipose compared to liver tissue in patients with severe obesity. Our results highlight excessive weight loss as a successful anti-inflammatory strategy.

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    • "Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that produces and secretes pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6 and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., adiponectin and IL-10). There is evidence that IL-6 and TNF-α are elevated in obese individuals and decrease with weight loss [7] [8]. In contrast, adiponectin and IL-10 are diminished in obese individuals and tend to increase with weight loss [9] [10]. "
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    • "The adipose tissue is in obesity characterized by an increased production and secretion of inflammatory molecules like TNF-α and IL-6, which may have local and systemic effects. The amounts of TNF-α and IL-6 are positively correlated with body fat and decrease in obese patients after weight loss (Moschen et al 2010; Tilg & Kaser 2011; Moschen et al 2011). "
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