Previous studies have shown that the Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth and development of hair follicles. It has been generally accepted that Wnt5a, a non-canonical Wnt gene, inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Several reports have addressed its mRNA expression in embryonic and postnatal hair follicles, but its exact role in the growth of hair follicles is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the immunolocalization of Wnt5a protein in pelages of the dorsal skin and whisker follicles of mice. We found that in the anagen phase, dermal papilla cells showed the highest staining levels of Wnt5a protein, while in the catagen and the telogen phases the staining levels were lower. During the growth stage, Wnt5a protein was prominently located in the matrix and precortex cells in addition to the inner root sheath, outer root sheath and the dermal papilla. As the hair cycle progresses, the immunostaining of Wnt5a was gradually decreased in the catagen phase and was located in the bulge and secondary hair germ in the telogen phase. This Wnt5a immunostaining profile was consistent between dorsal skin pelages and whisker follicles. Furthermore, in an in vitro study using whisker follicle organ culture, we demonstrated that the growth of the hair shaft was significantly inhibited by adenovirus Wnt5a. Our findings suggest that Wnt5a is a dynamic factor in the hair cycle and it is important for the regulation of hair shaft growth.
"A modulation of Wnt5a expression however has to be seen in a context of interactions between bulge stem cells with neighboring mesenchym. Immunolocalization found Wnt5a strongly expressed within the mesenchymal-derived dermal papilla of anagen HF’s but also by matrix and IRS cells and expression regressed to the bulge area with the beginning of catagen . A non-canonical, Wnt5a-mediated rise in intracellular calcium acts antagonistic to canonical, Cateninβ-mediated signaling. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hair cycling is a prime example of stem cell dependent tissue regeneration and replenishment, and its regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a blockage in terminal keratinocytic lineage differentiation in the Foxn1(-/-) nude phenotype on the epithelial progeny. Most notably we found a constitutive upregulation of LIM homeobox protein 2 (Lhx2), a marker gene of epithelial stem cellness indispensible for hair cycle progression. However, histological evidence along with an erratic, acyclic rise of otherwise suppressed CyclinD1 levels along with several key markers of keratinocyte lineage differentiation indicate a frustrated expansion of epithelial stem cell niches in skin. In addition, CD49f/CD34/CD200-based profiling demonstrated highly significant shifts in subpopulations of epithelial progeny. Intriguingly this appeared to include the expansion of Oct4+ stem cells in dermal fractions of skin isolates in the Foxn1 knock-out opposed to wild type. Overall our findings indicate that the Foxn1(-/-) phenotype has a strong impact on epithelial progeny and thus offers a promising model to study maintenance and regulation of stem cell niches within skin not feasible in other in vitro or in vivo models.
PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e64223. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064223 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dermal cells from neonatal mice can initiate the formation of hair follicles (HFs) when combined with adult mouse epidermal cells and transplanted subcutaneously into athymic mice. In the present study, the effects of dermal cells on HF formation were tested in terms of total cell number and the time course of cell harvest. Results demonstrated that the number of dermal cells is critical to the formation of HF. Furthermore, hair forming ability is rapidly decreasing as the neonatal mice age. To examine potential differences in gene expression, cDNA array was performed. Results demonstrate that numerous molecules which are directly involved in receptor and signaling correlated with decreased hair inductivity in early time points after delivery. It is reported that bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-6 and Wnt3a treatment increased hair inductivity of dermal papilla cells. But in our study, no changes were observed in the expression levels of BMP-6 and Wnt3a. However, several Wnt related genes demonstrate increased or decreased expression levels. Thus, our results suggest that co-ordinated regulation of these molecules will be important in hair neogenesis within our model system.
Annals of Dermatology 02/2012; 24(1):94-8. DOI:10.5021/ad.2012.24.1.94 · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a growing interest in alopecia prevention strategies, as the number of alopecia patients is increasing. We examine the efficacy of herbal medicine for hair growth promotion/hair loss inhibition in two cell lines via Western blot and high-content screening (HCS). Nine herbal extracts were obtained from three different herbal medicine mixtures using 3 different extraction methods. Five target proteins-IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1), TGF-β2 (transforming growth factor-β2), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), DKK-1 (Dickkopf-1), and Wnt5α-were observed for the assessment of hair growth promotion/hair loss inhibition efficacy. The efficacies of nine extracts were compared with minoxidil as control. Efficacy was defined as a rise in the expression levels of IGF-1, VEGF, and Wnt5α but a decrease in DKK-1 and TGF-β2. Intracellular concurrent imaging of these proteins was successfully achieved using HCS, employing visible-to-near infrared probing based on quantum-antibody conjugates and hypermulticolor imaging.
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