Tissue distribution of (35)S-labelled perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in C57Bl/6 mice following late gestational exposure.
ABSTRACT Exposure of rodents in utero to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) impairs perinatal development and survival. Following intravenous or gavage exposure of C57Bl/6 mouse dams on gestational day (GD) 16 to (35)S-PFOS (12.5mg/kg), we determined the distribution in dams, fetuses (GD18 and GD20) and pups (postnatal day 1, PND1) employing whole-body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting. In dams, levels were highest in liver and lungs. After placental transfer, (35)S-PFOS was present on GD18 at 2-3 times higher levels in lungs, liver and kidneys than in maternal blood. In PND1 pups, levels in lungs were significantly higher than in GD18 fetuses. A heterogeneous distribution of (35)S-PFOS was observed in brains of fetuses and pups, with levels higher than in maternal brain. This first demonstration of substantial localization of PFOS to both perinatal and adult lungs is consistent with evidence describing the lung as a target for the toxicity of PFOS at these ages.
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ABSTRACT: The use of organofluorine compounds has increased throughout this century, and they are now ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Although generally viewed as recalcitrant because of their lack of chemical reactivity, many fluorinated organics are biologically active. Several questions surround their distribution, fate, and effects. Of particular interest is the fate of perfluoroalkyl substituents, such as the trifluoromethyl group. Most evidence to date suggest that such groups resist defluorination, yet they can confer significant biological activity. Certain volatile fluorinated compounds can be oxidized in the troposphere yielding nonvolatile compounds, such as trifluoroacetic acid. In addition, certain nonvolatile fluorinated compounds can be transformed in the biosphere to volatile compounds. Research is needed to assess the fate and effects of nonvolatile fluorinated organics, the fluorinated impurities present in commercial formulations, and the transformation products generated by biochemical processes and/or oxidation in the troposphere.Environmental Science & Technology - ENVIRON SCI TECHNOL. 08/1997; 31(9).
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ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a widely distributed, environmentally persistent acid found at low levels in human, wildlife, and environmental media samples. Neonatal mortality has been observed following PFOS exposure in a two-generation reproduction study in rats and after dosing pregnant rats and mice during gestation. Objectives of the current study were to better define the dose-response curve for neonatal mortality in rat pups born to PFOS-exposed dams and to investigate biochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters potentially related to the etiology of effects observed in neonatal rat pups. In the current study, additional doses of 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, and 2.0 mg/kg/day were included with original doses used in the two-generation study of 0.4 and 1.6 mg/kg/day in order to obtain data in the critical range of the dose-response curve. Biochemical parameters investigated in dams and litters included: (1) serum lipids, glucose, mevalonic acid, and thyroid hormones; (2) milk cholesterol; and (3) liver lipids. Pharmacokinetic parameters investigated included the interrelationship of administered oral dose of PFOS to maternal body burden of PFOS and the transfer of maternal body burden to the fetus in utero and pup during lactation, as these factors may affect neonatal toxicity. Dosing of dams occurred for 6 weeks prior to mating with untreated breeder males, through confirmed mating, gestation, and day four of lactation. Dose levels for the dose-response and etiological investigation were 0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0 mg/kg/day PFOS. Statistically significant decreases in gestation length were observed in the 0.8 mg/kg and higher dose groups. Decreases in viability through lactation day 5 were observed in the 0.8 mg/kg and higher dose groups, becoming statistically significant in the 1.6 and 2.0 mg/kg dose groups. Reduced neonatal survival did not appear to be the result of reductions in lipids, glucose utilization, or thyroid hormones. The endpoints of gestation length and decreased viability were positively correlated, suggesting that late-stage fetal development may be affected in pups exposed to PFOS in utero and may contribute to the observed mortality. Benchmark dose (BMD) estimates for decreased gestation length, birth weight, pup weight on lactation day 5, pup weight gain through lactation day 5, and viability resulted in values ranging from 0.27 to 0.89mg/kg/day for the lower 95% confidence limit of the BMD5 (BMDL5). Results of analyses for PFOS in biological matrices indicate a linear proportionality of mean serum PFOS concentration to maternal administered dose prior to mating and through the first two trimesters of gestation. However, at 21 days of gestation, mean serum PFOS concentrations were notably reduced from values measured earlier in gestation. Urinary and fecal elimination was low as expected from prior observations in adult rats. Significant transfer of PFOS from dam to fetus in utero was confirmed, and results suggest that dam and corresponding fetal body burdens, as indicated by serum and liver PFOS levels, correlate with neonatal survival.Toxicology 12/2005; 215(1-2):149-69. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been used worldwide for more than 50 years in a wide variety of industrial and consumer products. Limited data exist on human exposure to PFCs in the Southern Hemisphere. Human blood serum collected in southeast Queensland, Australia, in 2006−2007 from 2420 donors was pooled according to age (cord blood, 0−0.5, 0.6−1, 1.1−1.5, 1.6−2, 2.1−2.5, 2.6−3, 3.1−3.5, 3.6−4, 4.1−6, 6.1−9, 9.1−12, 12.1−15, 16−30, 31−45, 46−60, and >60 years) and gender and was analyzed for eight PFCs. Across all pools, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected at the highest mean concentration (15.2 ng/mL) followed by perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 6.4 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.1 ng/mL), perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 0.8 ng/mL), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctance sulfonamide) acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH, 0.66 ng/mL), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA, 0.29 ng/mL). Perfluorooctane sulfonamide was detected in only 24% of the pools, and 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetate was detected in only one. PFOS concentrations were significantly higher in pools from adult males than from adult females (p = 0.002); no gender differences were apparent in the pools from children (<12 years old). The highest mean concentrations of PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFDeA, and Me-PFOSA-AcOH were found in children <15 years, while PFOS was highest in adults >60 years. Investigation into the sources and exposure pathways in Australia, in particular for children, is necessary as well as continued biomonitoring to determine the potential effects on human concentrations as a result of changes in the PFC manufacturing practices, including the cessation of production of several PFCs.Environmental Science and Technology 07/2009; · 5.26 Impact Factor