Enhancement of avermectin and ivermectin production by overexpression of the maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter in Streptomyces avermitilis
ABSTRACT We investigated the function of maltose ABC transporter system encoded by malEFG-a and the effect of its overexpression on antibiotic production in Streptomyces avermitilis. A malEFG-a deletion mutant was unable to grow in a minimal medium with maltose as sole carbon source and produce avermectin. Maltose utilization and avermectin production were restored by introduction of a single copy of malEFG-a. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of malE-a was induced by maltose, and was strongly repressed by glucose. When multi-copy, integrative malEFG-a gene expression vectors were introduced into wild-type strain ATCC31267 and ivermectin-producer OI-31, antibiotic production increased by 2.6- to 3.3-fold and the time required for fermentation decreased by about 10%. The overexpression of malEFG-a improved the utilization rate of starch, and thereby enhanced avermectin production. Such an approach would be useful for the improvement of commercial antibiotic production using starch as the main carbon source in the fermentation process.
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ABSTRACT: Avermectins (AVMs), produced by Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680 (or ATCC 31267, NRRL 8165, NCBIM 12804), are 16-member macrocylic lactones that play very important functions as bactericidal and antiparasitic agents against nematodes and anthropods, as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Since its discovery in 1975, use of AVM has been widely spreading around the globe. To date, the whole genome sequence of S. avermitilis K139 has been acquired, in which the AVM biosynthetic gene cluster was the most highly investigated to mine the genes responsible for functional as well as regulatory roles. Therefore, significant progress has been achieved for understanding and manipulating the biosynthesis, improved production, regulation mechanism, side effects, as well as the resistance of AVMs and their derivatives. These findings will facilitate further strain improvement and biosynthesis of novel derivatives bearing stable and improved biological activities, as well as overcoming the resistance mechanism to open up a bright period for these compounds. In this review, we have summarized and analyzed the update in advanced progress in biochemistry and biotechnological approaches used for the production of AVMs and their derivatives.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00253-014-5926-x · 3.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Avermectins are 16-membered macrocyclic polyketides with potent antiparasitic activities, produced by Streptomyces avermitilis. Upstream of the avermectin biosynthetic gene cluster, there is the avtAB operon encoding the ABC transporter AvtAB, which is highly homologous to the mammalian multidrug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Inactivation of avtAB had no effect, but increasing the concentration of avtAB mRNA 30-500-fold, using a multi-copy plasmid in S. avermitilis, enhanced avermectin production about two-fold both in the wild-type and in a high-yield producer strain on agar plates. In liquid industrial fermentation medium, the overall productivity of avermectin B1a in the engineered high-yield producer was improved for about 50%, from 3.3 to 4.8 g/l. In liquid YMG medium, moreover, the ratio of intracellular to extracellular accumulation of avermectin B1a was dropped from 6:1 to 4.5:1 in response to multiple copies of avtAB. Additionally, the overexpression of avtAB did not cause any increased expression of the avermectin biosynthetic genes through RT-PCR analysis. We propose that the AvtAB transporter exports avermectin, and thus reduces the feedback inhibition on avermectin production inside the cell. This strategy may be useful for enhancing the production of other antibiotics.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 06/2011; 92(2):337-45. DOI:10.1007/s00253-011-3439-4 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a widely used antibiotic, which is commercially produced by Streptomyces rimosus. The type II minimal polyketide synthases (minimal PKS) genes of the oxytetracycline biosynthesis cluster in S. rimosus, consisting of oxyA, oxyB and oxyC, are involved in catalyzing 19-C chain building by the condensation of eight malonyl-CoA groups to form the starting polyketide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of overexpression of the minimal PKS gene in a model S. rimosus strain (M4018) and in an industrial overproducer (SR16) by introduction of a second copy of the gene into the chromosome. Increased levels of oxyA, oxyB and oxyC gene transcription were monitored using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. Overexpression of the minimal PKS gene elicited retardation of cell growth and a significant improvement in OTC production in corresponding mutants (approximately 51.2% and 32.9% in M4018 and SR16 mutants respectively). These data indicate that the minimal PKS plays an important role in carbon flux redirection from cell growth pathways to OTC biosynthesis pathways.05/2012; 50(6-7):318-24. DOI:10.1016/j.enzmictec.2012.03.001