Effect of dietary astaxanthin at different stages of mammary tumor initiation in BALB/c mice.
ABSTRACT The effects of astaxanthin on tumor growth, cardiac function and immune response in mice were studied. Female BALB/c mice were fed a control diet (diet C) for 8 weeks, 0.005% astaxathin for 8 weeks (diet A), or diet C for weeks 1-5 followed by diet A thereafter (diet CA). Mice were injected with a mammary tumor cell line on day 7 and tumor growth was measured daily. Mice fed diet A had extended tumor latency and lower tumor volume (p<0.05). Interestingly, those fed diet CA showed the fastest tumor growth. Astaxanthin feeding elevated plasma astaxanthin concentrations; there was no difference in plasma astaxanthin between mice fed CA and those fed A. Mice fed diet A, but not CA, had a higher (p<0.05) natural killer cell subpopulation and plasma interferon-gamma concentration compared to those fed diet C. Astaxanthin delayed tumor growth and modulated immune response, but only when astaxanthin was given before tumor initiation. This suggests that an adequate blood astaxanthin status is needed to protect against tumor initiation; conversely, astaxanthin supplementation after tumor initiation may be contraindicated.
- SourceAvailable from: Dr. Ranga Rao Ambati[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-β, β'-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications.Marine Drugs 01/2014; 12(1):128-152. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Astaxanthin, a member of the carotenoid family, is the only known ketocarotenoid transported into the brain by transcytosis through the blood-brain barrier. However, whether astaxanthin has antifibrotic functions is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of astaxanthin on transforming growth factor 1-mediated and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that astaxanthin significantly improved the structure of the alveoli and alleviated collagen deposition in vivo. Compared with the control group, the astaxanthin-treated groups exhibited downregulated protein expressions of -smooth muscle actin, vimentin, hydroxyproline, and B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 as well as upregulated protein expressions of E-cadherin and p53 in vitro and in vivo. Astaxanthin also inhibited the proliferation of activated A549 and MRC-5 cells at median inhibitory concentrations of 40 and 30 M, respectively. In conclusion, astaxanthin could relieve the symptoms and halt the progression of pulmonary fibrosis, partly by preventing transdifferentiation, inhibiting proliferation, and promoting apoptosis of activated cells.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 03/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a pinkish-orange carotenoid produced by microalgae, but also commonly found in shrimp, lobster and salmon, which accumulate ASTA from the aquatic food chain. Numerous studies have addressed the benefits of ASTA for human health, including the inhibition of LDL oxidation, UV-photoprotection and prophylaxis of bacterial stomach ulcers. ASTA is recognized as a powerful scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially those involved in lipid peroxidation. Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise are closely related to overproduction of ROS in muscle tissue. Post-exercise inflammatory processes can even exacerbate the oxidative stress imposed by exercise. Thus, ASTA is suggested here as a putative nutritional alternative/coadjutant for antioxidant therapy to afford additional protection to muscle tissues against oxidative damage induced by exercise, as well as for an (overall) integrative redox re-balance and general human health.Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 04/2011; 21(2):283-289. · 0.80 Impact Factor