Sites of allergic airway smooth muscle remodeling and hyperresponsiveness are not associated in the rat
ABSTRACT The cause-and-effect relationship between airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) following allergen challenge is not well established. Using a rat model of allergen-induced ASM remodeling we explored the relationship between the site of ASM remodeling and AHR. Brown Norway rats, sensitized and challenged (3 times at 5-day intervals) with ovalbumin, were intranasally administered 0.1 mg/kg budesonide 24 and 1 h before challenge. Airway responses to aerosolized methacholine were assessed 48 h or 1 wk after three challenges. Airways were stained and analyzed for total airway wall area, area of smooth muscle-specific α-actin, and goblet cell hyperplasia, and the constant-phase model was used to resolve the changes in respiratory system mechanics into large airway and peripheral lung responses. After three ovalbumin challenges, there was a significant increase in ASM area and in the total wall area in all sized airways as well as an increase in goblet cells in the central airways. Budesonide inhibited ASM growth and central airway goblet cell hyperplasia following ovalbumin challenges. Budesonide also inhibited small but not large airway total wall area. AHR was attributable to excessive responses of the small airways, whereas responsiveness of the large airways was unchanged. Budesonide did not inhibit AHR after repeated challenge. We conclude that ASM remodeling induced by repeated allergen challenges involves the entire bronchial tree, whereas AHR reflects alterations in the lung periphery. Prevention of ASM remodeling by corticosteroid does not abrogate AHR.
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ABSTRACT: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a characteristic feature of asthma. It has been proposed that an increase in the shortening velocity of airway smooth muscle (ASM) could contribute to AHR. To address this possibility, we tested whether an increase in the isotonic shortening velocity of ASM is associated with an increase in the rate and total amount of shortening when ASM is subjected to an oscillating load, as occurs during breathing. Experiments were performed in vitro using 27 rat tracheal ASM strips supramaximally stimulated with methacholine. Isotonic velocity at 20% isometric force (Fiso) was measured, and then the load on the muscle was varied sinusoidally (0.33 ± 0.25 Fiso, 1.2 Hz) for 20 min, while muscle length was measured. A large amplitude oscillation was applied every 4 min to simulate a deep breath. We found that: 1) ASM strips with a higher isotonic velocity shortened more quickly during the force oscillations, both initially (P < 0.001) and after the simulated deep breaths (P = 0.002); 2) ASM strips with a higher isotonic velocity exhibited a greater total shortening during the force oscillation protocol (P < 0.005); and 3) the effect of an increase in isotonic velocity was at least comparable in magnitude to the effect of a proportional increase in ASM force-generating capacity. A cross-bridge model showed that an increase in the total amount of shortening with increased isotonic velocity could be explained by a change in either the cycling rate of phosphorylated cross bridges or the rate of myosin light chain phosphorylation. We conclude that, if asthma involves an increase in ASM velocity, this could be an important factor in the associated AHR.AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 10/2010; 300(1):L121-31. DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00228.2010 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increased proteoglycan (PG) deposition is a feature of airway remodeling in asthma. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mediate many of the biological and mechanical properties of PGs by providing docking sites through their carbohydrate chains to bioactive ligands; therefore, it is imperative to define structural and metabolic changes of GAGs in asthma. Using a Brown Norway (BN) ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and -challenged rat model to induce airway remodeling, we found excessive deposition of chondroitin/dermatan (CS/DS)-, heparan (HS), and keratan (KS) sulfate GAGs in the airways and bronchoalveolar lavage cells of OVA-challenged rats. Disaccharide composition of CS/DS of OVA-challenged rats was significantly different compared with saline-treated (SAL) control rats, with increased levels of 0-, 6-, and 4-sulfated disaccharides. Increases in the amount and a change in the proportion of CS/DS versus HS GAGs were noted in OVA-challenged rats. The higher content and sulfation of CS/DS disaccharides was reflected by the increased expression of xylosyltransferase-I, β1,3-glucuronosyltransferase-I, chondroitin-4, and chondroitin-6 sulfotransferase genes and protein expression of xylosyltransferase-I and β1,3-glucuronosyltransferase-I in OVA-challenged rats. Genes encoding the core proteins of the CS/DS and KS-containing PGs, such as versican, biglycan, decorin, and lumican, were overexpressed in OVA-challenged rats. Our results suggest that GAG biosynthetic enzymes may be involved in the altered expression of GAGs in the airways and are potential targets for inhibiting excess PG-GAG deposition and the airway remodeling process in asthma.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 08/2011; 46(1):96-105. DOI:10.1165/rcmb.2011-0014OC · 4.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Large production volumes of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) might be anticipated to pose risks, of accidental inhalation in occupational and even in consumer settings. Herein, we further investigated the pathological changes induced by ZnONP and their possible mechanism of action. Two doses of ZnONP (50 and 150 cm2/rat) were intratracheally instilled into the lungs of rats with assessments made at 24 h, 1 wk, and 4 wks after instillation to evaluate dose- and time-course responses. Assessments included bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, histological analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and IgE and IgA measurement in the serum and BAL fluid. To evaluate the mechanism, alternative ZnONP, ZnONP-free bronchoalveolar lavage exudate, and dissolved Zn2+ (92.5 μg/rat) were also instilled to rats. Acridine orange staining was utilized in macrophages in culture to evaluate the lysosomal membrane destabilization by NP. ZnONP induced eosinophilia, proliferation of airway epithelial cells, goblet cell hyperplasia, and pulmonary fibrosis. Bronchocentric interstitial pulmonary fibrosis at the chronic phase was associated with increased myofibroblast accumulation and transforming growth factor-β positivity. Serum IgE levels were up-regulated by ZnONP along with the eosinophilia whilst serum IgA levels were down-regulated by ZnONP. ZnONP are rapidly dissolved under acidic conditions (pH 4.5) whilst they remained intact around neutrality (pH 7.4). The instillation of dissolved Zn2+ into rat lungs showed similar pathologies (eg., eosinophilia, bronchocentric interstitial fibrosis) as were elicited by ZnONP. Lysosomal stability was decreased and cell death resulted following treatment of macrophages with ZnONP in vitro. We hypothesise that rapid, pH-dependent dissolution of ZnONP inside of phagosomes is the main cause of ZnONP-induced diverse progressive severe lung injuries.Particle and Fibre Toxicology 09/2011; 8:27. DOI:10.1186/1743-8977-8-27 · 6.99 Impact Factor