The cause-and-effect relationship between airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) following allergen challenge is not well established. Using a rat model of allergen-induced ASM remodeling we explored the relationship between the site of ASM remodeling and AHR. Brown Norway rats, sensitized and challenged (3 times at 5-day intervals) with ovalbumin, were intranasally administered 0.1 mg/kg budesonide 24 and 1 h before challenge. Airway responses to aerosolized methacholine were assessed 48 h or 1 wk after three challenges. Airways were stained and analyzed for total airway wall area, area of smooth muscle-specific α-actin, and goblet cell hyperplasia, and the constant-phase model was used to resolve the changes in respiratory system mechanics into large airway and peripheral lung responses. After three ovalbumin challenges, there was a significant increase in ASM area and in the total wall area in all sized airways as well as an increase in goblet cells in the central airways. Budesonide inhibited ASM growth and central airway goblet cell hyperplasia following ovalbumin challenges. Budesonide also inhibited small but not large airway total wall area. AHR was attributable to excessive responses of the small airways, whereas responsiveness of the large airways was unchanged. Budesonide did not inhibit AHR after repeated challenge. We conclude that ASM remodeling induced by repeated allergen challenges involves the entire bronchial tree, whereas AHR reflects alterations in the lung periphery. Prevention of ASM remodeling by corticosteroid does not abrogate AHR.
"The animals were ventilated at a tidal volume of 8 mL/kg, a breathing frequency of 90 breaths/minute and an end-expiratory pressure of 2.5 cmH2O using a computer controlled small animal ventilator ((Flexivent, Scireq, Montréal, QC, Canada) up to 20 minutes after the Ova or PBS challenge. Respiratory system mechanics were assessed every 15 seconds using the constant phase model . The latter model fits the data to an equation that has four parameters and these are estimated by solving the following: "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The parameters R(N) (newtonian resistance), G (tissue damping), and H (tissue elastance) of the constant phase model of respiratory mechanics provide information concerning the site of altered mechanical properties of the lung. The aims of this study were to compare the site of allergic airway narrowing implied from respiratory mechanics to a direct assessment by morphometry and to evaluate the effects of exogenous surfactant administration on the site and magnitude of airway narrowing.
We induced airway narrowing by ovalbumin sensitization and challenge and we tested the effects of a natural surfactant lacking surfactant proteins A and D (Infasurf®) on airway responses. Sensitized, mechanically ventilated Brown Norway rats underwent an aerosol challenge with 5% ovalbumin or vehicle. Other animals received nebulized surfactant prior to challenge. Three or 20 minutes after ovalbumin challenge, airway luminal areas were assessed on snap-frozen lungs by morphometry.
At 3 minutes, R(N) and G detected large airway narrowing whereas at 20 minutes G and H detected small airway narrowing. Surfactant inhibited R(N) at the peak of the early allergic response and ovalbumin-induced increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cysteinyl leukotrienes and amphiregulin but not IgE-induced mast cell activation in vitro.
Allergen challenge triggers the rapid onset of large airway narrowing, detected by R(N) and G, and subsequent peripheral airway narrowing detected by G and H. Surfactant inhibits airway narrowing and reduces mast cell-derived mediators.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29381. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029381 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The quantitative image analysis of PAS-positive cells was performed using Image-Pro Plus (Media Cybernetics, MD, USA). PAS-positive signals in the airways were separately evaluated according to airway diameter; airways smaller than 1 mm were considered to be small airways or bronchioles and larger than 1 mm were considered to be a large airway or bronchi . The total area of PAS-positive cells was divided by the total area of epithelial cells including basement membrane. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large production volumes of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) might be anticipated to pose risks, of accidental inhalation in occupational and even in consumer settings. Herein, we further investigated the pathological changes induced by ZnONP and their possible mechanism of action.
Two doses of ZnONP (50 and 150 cm2/rat) were intratracheally instilled into the lungs of rats with assessments made at 24 h, 1 wk, and 4 wks after instillation to evaluate dose- and time-course responses. Assessments included bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, histological analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and IgE and IgA measurement in the serum and BAL fluid. To evaluate the mechanism, alternative ZnONP, ZnONP-free bronchoalveolar lavage exudate, and dissolved Zn2+ (92.5 μg/rat) were also instilled to rats. Acridine orange staining was utilized in macrophages in culture to evaluate the lysosomal membrane destabilization by NP.
ZnONP induced eosinophilia, proliferation of airway epithelial cells, goblet cell hyperplasia, and pulmonary fibrosis. Bronchocentric interstitial pulmonary fibrosis at the chronic phase was associated with increased myofibroblast accumulation and transforming growth factor-β positivity. Serum IgE levels were up-regulated by ZnONP along with the eosinophilia whilst serum IgA levels were down-regulated by ZnONP. ZnONP are rapidly dissolved under acidic conditions (pH 4.5) whilst they remained intact around neutrality (pH 7.4). The instillation of dissolved Zn2+ into rat lungs showed similar pathologies (eg., eosinophilia, bronchocentric interstitial fibrosis) as were elicited by ZnONP. Lysosomal stability was decreased and cell death resulted following treatment of macrophages with ZnONP in vitro.
We hypothesise that rapid, pH-dependent dissolution of ZnONP inside of phagosomes is the main cause of ZnONP-induced diverse progressive severe lung injuries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a characteristic feature of asthma. It has been proposed that an increase in the shortening velocity of airway smooth muscle (ASM) could contribute to AHR. To address this possibility, we tested whether an increase in the isotonic shortening velocity of ASM is associated with an increase in the rate and total amount of shortening when ASM is subjected to an oscillating load, as occurs during breathing. Experiments were performed in vitro using 27 rat tracheal ASM strips supramaximally stimulated with methacholine. Isotonic velocity at 20% isometric force (Fiso) was measured, and then the load on the muscle was varied sinusoidally (0.33 ± 0.25 Fiso, 1.2 Hz) for 20 min, while muscle length was measured. A large amplitude oscillation was applied every 4 min to simulate a deep breath. We found that: 1) ASM strips with a higher isotonic velocity shortened more quickly during the force oscillations, both initially (P < 0.001) and after the simulated deep breaths (P = 0.002); 2) ASM strips with a higher isotonic velocity exhibited a greater total shortening during the force oscillation protocol (P < 0.005); and 3) the effect of an increase in isotonic velocity was at least comparable in magnitude to the effect of a proportional increase in ASM force-generating capacity. A cross-bridge model showed that an increase in the total amount of shortening with increased isotonic velocity could be explained by a change in either the cycling rate of phosphorylated cross bridges or the rate of myosin light chain phosphorylation. We conclude that, if asthma involves an increase in ASM velocity, this could be an important factor in the associated AHR.
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