Epidemiology of viral respiratory tract infections in a prospective cohort of infants and toddlers attending daycare
ABSTRACT The epidemiology of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in a daycare cohort has not been explored using molecular techniques.
(1) Determine the overall incidence of RTIs in a daycare cohort using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (2) Determine the relative incidence and impact of specific respiratory viruses, and characterize and compare clinical features associated with these pathogens.
In this prospective cohort study conducted from February 2006 to April 2008, nasal swabs were obtained from symptomatic children ages 0-30 months enrolled in fulltime daycare. RT-PCR was performed to detect respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (MPV), influenza (Flu) viruses A and B, parainfluenza (PIV), adenovirus (AdV), human coronaviruses (CoV) and rhinovirus (RhV). Symptom diaries were completed for each illness.
We followed 119 children (mean age 10 months; range 2-24 months) for 115 child years. The mean annual incidence of RTI per child was 4.2 the first year and 1.2 the second year of the study. At least 1 virus was identified in 67% RTIs. Co-infections were common (27% RTIs), with RhV, CoV, and AdV the most common co-pathogens. PIV was identified in 12% of RTIs with a high incidence of PIV4. The viruses with the greatest impact on our population were RSV, RhV and AdV.
Using molecular techniques, viruses were identified in approximately twice as many RTIs as previously reported in a daycare cohort. Infections with newly identified viruses, such as HMPV and CoV subtypes were less frequent and severe than infections with RSV, AdV and RhV.
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ABSTRACT: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most virulent pathogen among enteroviruses that cause hand, foot and mouth disease in children but rarely in adults. The mechanisms that determine the age-dependent susceptibility remain largely unclear. Here, we found that the paucity of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells together with immaturity of the immune system was related to the susceptibility of neonatal mice to EV71 infection. iNKT cells were crucial antiviral effector cells to protect young mice from EV71 infection before their adaptive immune systems were fully mature. EV71 infection led to activation of iNKT cells depending on signaling through TLR3 but not other TLRs. Surprisingly, iNKT cell activation during EV71 infection required TLR3 signaling in macrophages, but not in dendritic cells (DCs). Mechanistically, interleukin (IL)-12 and endogenous CD1d-restricted antigens were both required for full activation of iNKT cells. Furthermore, CD1d-deficiency led to dramatically increased viral loads in central nervous system and more severe disease in EV71-infected mice. Altogether, our results suggest that iNKT cells may be involved in controlling EV71 infection in children when their adaptive immune systems are not fully developed, and also imply that iNKT cells might be an intervention target for treating EV71-infected patients.PLoS Pathogens 01/2015; 11(1):e1004613. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004613 · 8.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Post-infectious immunity to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection results in limited protection as evidenced by the high rate of infant hospitalization in the face of high titer, maternally derived RSV-specific antibodies. By contrast, RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein antigenic site II humanized monoclonal antibodies, palivizumab and motavizumab, have been shown to reduce RSV-related hospitalization in infants. Immunogenicity and efficacy studies were conducted in cotton rats comparing a recombinant RSV F nanoparticle vaccine with palivizumab and controlled with live RSV virus intranasal immunization and, formalin inactivated RSV vaccine. Active immunization with RSV F nanoparticle vaccine containing an alum adjuvant induced serum levels of palivizumab competing antibody (PCA) greater than passive administration of 15 mg/kg palivizumab (human prophylactic dose) in cotton rats and neutralized RSV-A and RSV-B viruses. Immunization prevented detectable RSV replication in the lungs and, unlike passive administration of palivizumab, in the nasal passage of challenged cotton rats. Histology of lung tissues following RSV challenge showed no enhanced disease in the vaccinated groups in contrast to formalin inactivated ‘Lot 100’ vaccine. Passive intramuscular administration of RSV F vaccine-induced immune sera one day prior to challenge of cotton rats reduced viral titers by 2 or more log10 virus per gram of lung and nasal tissue and at doses less than palivizumab. A recombinant RSV F nanoparticle vaccine protected lower and upper respiratory tract against both RSV A and B strain infection and induced polyclonal palivizumab competing antibodies similar to but potentially more broadly protective against RSV than palivizumab.Vaccine 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.09.030 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The use of a multiplex molecular technique to identify the etiological pathogen of respiratory viral infections might be a support as clinical signs are not characteristic. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate a multiplex molecular real-time assay for the routine diagnosis of respiratory viruses, to analyze the symptoms associated with the pathogens detected and to determine the spread of virus during the period. Study design Respiratory samples were collected from children presenting with respiratory symptoms and attending the emergency unit during the 2010–2011 winter seasons. Samples were tested with the multiplex RespiFinder® 15 assay (PathoFinder™) which potentially detects 15 viruses. Results 857 (88.7%) of the 966 samples collected from 914 children were positive for one (683 samples) or multiple viruses (174 samples). The most prevalent were the respiratory syncytial virus (39.5%) and the rhinovirus (24.4%). Influenza viruses were detected in 139 (14.4%) samples. Adenovirus was detected in 93 (9.6%) samples, coronaviruses in 88 (9.1%), metapneumovirus in 51 (5.3%) and parainfluenzae in 47 (4.9%). Rhinovirus (40%) was the most prevalent pathogen in upper respiratory tract infections while respiratory syncytial virus (49.9%) was the most prevalent in lower respiratory tract infections. Co-infections were associated with severe respiratory symptoms. Conclusion The multiplex assay detected clinically important viruses in a single genomic test and thus will be useful for detecting several viruses causing respiratory tract disorders.Journal of Clinical Virology 09/2014; 61(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2014.08.023 · 3.47 Impact Factor