Article

Investigation of the distribution and function of alpha-adrenoceptors in the sheep isolated internal anal sphincter.

Centre for Integrated Systems Biology and Medicine, Department of Surgery, The University of Nottingham Medical School, Queen's Medical Centre, Clifton Boulevard, Nottingham, UK.
British Journal of Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 4.99). 08/2010; 160(7):1727-40. DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00842.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We have investigated the distribution of alpha-adrenoceptors in sheep internal anal sphincter (IAS), as a model for the human tissue, and evaluated various imidazoline derivatives for potential treatment of faecal incontinence.
Saturation and competition binding with (3)H-prazosin and (3)H-RX821002 were used to confirm the presence and density of alpha-adrenoceptors in sheep IAS, and the affinity of imidazoline compounds at these receptors. A combination of in vitro receptor autoradiography and immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the regional distribution of binding sites. Contractile activity of imidazoline-based compounds on sheep IAS was assessed by isometric tension recording.
Saturation binding confirmed the presence of both alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, and subsequent characterization with sub-type-selective agents, identified them as alpha(1A)- and alpha(2D)-adrenoceptor sub-types. Autoradiographic studies with (3)H-prazosin showed a positive association of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors with immunohistochemically identified smooth muscle fibres. Anti-alpha(1)-adrenoceptor immunohistochemistry revealed similar distributions of the receptor in sheep and human IAS. The imidazoline compounds caused concentration-dependent contractions of the anal sphincter, but the maximum responses were less than those elicited by l-erythro-methoxamine, a standard non-imidazoline alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist. Prazosin (selective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist) significantly reduced the magnitude of contraction to l-erythro-methoxamine at the highest concentration used. Both prazosin and RX811059 (a selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist) reduced the potency (pEC(50)) of clonidine.
This study shows that both alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptors are expressed in the sheep IAS, and contribute (perhaps synergistically) to contractions elicited by various imidazoline derivatives. These agents may prove useful in the treatment of faecal incontinence.

0 Followers
 · 
124 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Haemorrhoids is associated with high blood flow of the anorectal region. The question of whether pharmacological manipulation of vascular supply can relieve the symptoms of haemorrhoids has been raised. In order to undertake this type of clinical investigation, it is first essential to gain a better understanding of the properties of vascular receptors that may regulate blood flow into anal cushions and haemorrhoids. Due to the limited availability of human anorectal specimens and the good reliability of sheep tissue as an experimental model of human anorectal diseases, we studied the properties of endothelin receptors in sheep rectal artery (SRA) and vein (SRV), the vessels contributing to the blood flow of haemorrhoidal plexus, using isometric tension recordings. We found that endothelin-1 and sarafotoxin 6a were very potent constrictor agents in both SRA and SRV. The selective ET(A) receptor antagonist PD156707 (100 nM) produced a parallel rightward displacement of ET-1-induced contractions in both vessels and abolished sarafotoxin 6a-induced contractions in the SRA. PD156707 (3 μM) practically abolished contractions to ET-1 in the SRA, suggesting that the response is entirely mediated by ET(A) receptors. While, the selective ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ788 (100 nM) caused no significant change in ET-1-induced contractions in both vessels, a minor role for ET(B) receptor subtype to responses to sarafotoxin 6a in the artery was suggested.
    Pharmacological Research 03/2011; 63(6):490-5. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2011.02.010 · 3.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The focus of the British Society for Research on Ageing (BSRA) annual scientific meeting 2012 was aging mechanisms and mitigants. The themes covered included epigenetics, stem cells and regeneration, aging pathways and molecules, the aging bladder and bowel, as well as updates from the New Dynamics of Ageing (NDA) programme. The topics incorporated new directions for staple aging research in caloric restriction (CR), inflammation, immunesenescence, neurodegeneration, homeostasis and stress resistance, as well as newer research areas such as bioengineering of tissues, including the internal anal sphincter and thymus.
    British Society for Research on Ageing (BSRA) annual scientific meeting 2012; 07/2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of α-adrenoceptors in promoting continence through modulation of sphincter tone has focused primarily on the effects of α1 -adrenoceptors. We have used three clinically available agents, which are selective for α2 -adrenoceptors, to investigate their role in contractile and neurogenic responses on the internal anal sphincter (IAS).
    Neurogastroenterology and Motility 06/2014; 26(8). DOI:10.1111/nmo.12363 · 3.42 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
12 Downloads
Available from
Aug 27, 2014