Rational design of novel peptidic DnaK ligands.

Max Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle-Saale, Germany.
ChemBioChem (Impact Factor: 3.06). 08/2010; 11(12):1727-37. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201000166
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The hsp70 chaperone DnaK from E. coli plays a major role in cellular stress response and is involved in assisted protein folding in vivo. By screening a combinatorial peptide library, we identified several DnaK-specific peptide ligands with nanomolar affinities, which are able to inhibit the secondary amide peptide bond cis/trans isomerase (APIase) activity of DnaK, as well as DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE-assisted refolding of firefly luciferase. Our designed DnaK inhibitors have the capability to penetrate E. coli cells and feature a high protease resistance. Once inside the cell, they physically target DnaK. NMR-based (1)H/(15)N-HSQC experiments furthermore confirmed that the designed peptidic ligands all bind in an identical manner to the conventional peptide-binding site of DnaK. The subsequent blocking of DnaK function apparently results in the observed antibacterial effects on E. coli cells, with minimum inhibitory concentrations in the range of 100 microM.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) freely penetrate through the outer membrane into the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria, before they are actively translocated by a permease/transporter-mediated uptake into the cytoplasm where they are reported to inhibit chaperone DnaK. Here we have studied the PrAMP apidaecin 1b, which is produced in honey bees in response to bacterial infections, and optimized apidaecin analogs for their bacterial uptake. The peptides were labeled with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein and their internalization in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was visualized by fluorescence microscopy and quantified by flow cytometry for four different time points over an incubation period of 4 h. Apidaecin 1b entered only 40% to 50% of the cells at detectable quantities, whereas designer peptides Api88, Api134 and Api155 entered more than 95% of the bacteria within 30 min at around fourfold higher quantities than the native peptide. Interestingly, a shortened version designated as 1-17Api88, bound DnaK as efficiently as the 18-residue long Api88 and entered the bacteria at similar kinetics as Api88, but was unable to inhibit the bacterial growth. Similar conflicts with currently proposed mechanisms of PrAMPs were also obtained for some Ala-substituted analogs and reverse apidaecin sequences. Although peptides with C-terminal amides enter the cells much more efficiently than homologous C-terminal acids, this improved cell penetration does not improve the antibacterial activities. These studies suggest that PrAMPs utilize additional modes of action to kill sensitive organisms.
    Protein and Peptide Letters 10/2013; 21(4). DOI:10.2174/09298665113206660104 · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hsp70 chaperones have been implicated in assisting protein folding of newly synthesized polypeptide chains, refolding of misfolded proteins as well as protein trafficking. For these functions, the chaperones need to exhibit a significant promiscuity in binding to different sequences of hydrophobic peptide stretches. To characterize the structural basis of sequence specificity and flexibility of the Escherichia coli Hsp70 chaperone DnaK, we have analyzed crystal structures of the substrate binding domain of the protein in complex with artificially designed peptides as well as small proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (Pr-AMPs). Pr-AMPs from mammals and insects were identified to target DnaK after cell penetration. Interestingly, the complex crystal structures reveal two different peptide binding modes. The peptides can either bind in a forward or in a reverse direction to the conventional substrate binding cleft of DnaK in an extended conformation. Superposition of the two binding modes shows a remarkable similarity in the side chain orientations and hydrogen bonding pattern despite the reversed peptide orientation. The DnaK chaperone has evolved to bind peptides in both orientations in the substrate binding cleft with comparable energy without rearrangements of the protein. Optimal hydrophobic interactions with binding pockets -2 to 0 appear to be the main determinant for the orientation and sequence position of peptide binding.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2013.03.041 · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We identified nine small-molecule hit compounds of Heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (HSPA5) from cascade in silico screening based on the binding modes of the tetrapeptides derived from the peptide substrate or inhibitors of Escherichia coli HSP70. Two compounds exhibit promising inhibition activities from cancer cell viability and tumor inhibition assays. The binding modes of the hit compounds provide a platform for development of selective small molecule inhibitors of HSPA5.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.03.035 · 2.33 Impact Factor