A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Trial of a Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Model to Improve Blood Pressure Control
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a physician/pharmacist collaborative model would be implemented as determined by improved blood pressure (BP) control in primary care medical offices with diverse geographic and patient characteristics and whether long-term BP control could be sustained.
Prospective, cluster-randomized trial of 32 primary care offices stratified and randomized to control, 9-month intervention (brief), and 24-month intervention (sustained). We enrolled 625 subjects with uncontrolled hypertension; 54% from racial/ethnic minority groups and 50% with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease. The primary outcome of BP control at 9 months was 43% in intervention offices (n=401) compared with 34% in the control group (n=224; adjusted odds ratio, 1.57 [95% confidence interval, 0.99-2.50]; P=0.059). The adjusted difference in mean systolic/diastolic BP between the intervention and control groups for all subjects at 9 months was -6.1/-2.9 mm Hg (P=0.002 and P=0.005, respectively), and it was -6.4/-2.9 mm Hg (P=0.009 and P=0.044, respectively) in subjects from racial or ethnic minorities. BP control and mean BP were significantly improved in subjects from racial minorities in intervention offices at 18 and 24 months (P=0.048 to P<0.001) compared with the control group.
Although the results of the primary outcome (BP control) were negative, the key secondary end point (mean BP) was significantly improved in the intervention group. Thus, the findings for secondary end points suggest that team-based care using clinical pharmacists was implemented in diverse primary care offices and BP was reduced in subjects from racial minority groups.
URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00935077. Unique identifier: NCT00935077.
© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Small trials with short term follow up suggest pharmacists' interventions targeted at healthcare professionals can improve prescribing. In comparison with clinical guidance, contemporary statin prescribing is sub-optimal and achievement of cholesterol targets falls short of accepted standards, for patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease who are at highest absolute risk and who stand to obtain greatest benefit. We hypothesised that a pharmacist-led complex intervention delivered to doctors and nurses in primary care, would improve statin prescribing and achievement of cholesterol targets for incident and prevalent patients with vascular disease, beyond one year. We allocated general practices to a 12-month Statin Outreach Support (SOS) intervention or usual care. SOS was delivered by one of 11 pharmacists who had received additional training. SOS comprised academic detailing and practical support to identify patients with vascular disease who were not prescribed a statin at optimal dose or did not have cholesterol at target, followed by individualised recommendations for changes to management. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving cholesterol targets. Secondary outcomes were: the proportion of patients prescribed simvastatin 40 mg with target cholesterol achieved; cholesterol levels; prescribing of simvastatin 40 mg; prescribing of any statin and the proportion of patients with cholesterol tested. Outcomes were assessed after an average of 1.7 years (range 1.4-2.2 years), and practice level simvastatin 40 mg prescribing was assessed after 10 years. We randomised 31 practices (72 General Practitioners (GPs), 40 nurses). Prior to randomisation a subset of eligible patients were identified to characterise practices; 40% had cholesterol levels below the target threshold. Improvements in data collection procedures allowed identification of all eligible patients (n = 7586) at follow up. Patients in practices allocated to SOS were significantly more likely to have cholesterol at target (69.5% vs 63.5%; OR 1.11, CI 1.00-1.23; p = 0.043) as a result of improved simvastatin prescribing. Subgroup analysis showed the primary outcome was achieved by prevalent but not incident patients. Statistically significant improvements occurred in all secondary outcomes for prevalent patients and all but one secondary outcome (the proportion of patients with cholesterol tested) for incident patients. SOS practices prescribed more simvastatin 40 mg than usual care practices, up to 10 years later. Through a combination of educational and organisational support, a general practice based pharmacist led collaborative intervention can improve statin prescribing and achievement of cholesterol targets in a high-risk primary care based population. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Register ISRCTN61233866.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e113370. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113370 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To determine if asthma control improves in patients who receive physician–pharmacist collaborative management (PPCM) during visits to primary care medical offices.DesignProspective pre–post study of patients who received the intervention in primary care offices for 9 months. The primary outcome was the sum of asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations at 9 months before, 9 months during, and 9 months after the intervention. Events were analyzed using linear mixed-effects regression. Secondary analysis was conducted for patients with uncontrolled asthma (Asthma Control Test [ACT] less than 20). Additional secondary outcomes included the ACT, the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire by Marks (AQLQ-M) scores, and medication changes.InterventionPharmacists provided patients with an asthma self-management plan and education and made pharmacotherapy recommendations to physicians when appropriate.ResultsOf 126 patients, the number of emergency department (ED) visits and/or hospitalizations decreased 30% during the intervention (p=0.052) and then returned to preenrollment levels after the intervention was discontinued (p=0.83). Secondary analysis of patients with uncontrolled asthma at baseline (ACT less than 20), showed 37 ED visits and hospitalizations before the intervention, 21 during the intervention, and 33 after the intervention was discontinued (p=0.019). ACT and AQLQ-M scores improved during the intervention (ACT mean absolute increase of 2.11, AQLQ-M mean absolute decrease of 4.86, p<0.0001) and sustained a stable effect after discontinuation of the intervention. Inhaled corticosteroid use increased during the intervention (p=0.024).Conclusions The PPCM care model reduced asthma-related ED visits and hospitalizations and improved asthma control and quality of life. However, the primary outcome was not statistically significant for all patients. There was a significant reduction in ED visits and hospitalizations during the intervention for patients with uncontrolled asthma at baseline. Our findings support the need for further studies to investigate asthma outcomes achievable with the PPCM model.Pharmacotherapy 10/2014; 34(10). DOI:10.1002/phar.1468 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper examines baseline characteristics from a prospective, cluster-randomized trial in 32 primary care offices. Offices were first stratified by percentage of minorities and level of clinical pharmacy services and then randomized into 1 of 3 study groups. The only differences between randomized arms were for marital status (P=.03) and type of insurance coverage (P<.001). Blood pressures (BPs) were similar in Caucasians and minority patients, primarily blacks, who were hypertensive at baseline. On multivariate analyses, patients who were 65 years and older had higher systolic BP (152.4±14.3 mm Hg), but lower diastolic BP (77.3±11.8 mm Hg) compared with those younger than 65 years (147.4±15.0/88.6±10.6 mm Hg, P<.001 for both systolic and diastolic BP). Other factors significantly associated with higher systolic BP were a longer duration of hypertension (P=.04) and lower basal metabolic index (P=.011). Patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease had a lower systolic BP than those without these conditions (P<.0001). BP was similar across racial and socioeconomic groups for patients with uncontrolled hypertension in primary care, suggesting that patients with uncontrolled hypertension and an established primary care relationship likely have different reasons for poor BP control than other patient populations.Journal of Clinical Hypertension 06/2013; 15(6):404-12. DOI:10.1111/jch.12091 · 2.96 Impact Factor