We sought to investigate the type and kinetics of late-phase nasal inflammatory response after nasal challenge with occupational allergens. Participants were 10 subjects experiencing work-related rhinitis symptoms who underwent specific inhalation challenge and tested positive for occupational rhinitis. During challenge, we monitored changes in inflammatory cells, eosinophil cationic protein, myeloperoxidase, and interleukin-8 in nasal lavage samples. The challenge with the active agent induced a significant increase in the percentage of eosinophils at 30 minutes as compared with prechallenge values (P = 0.04). A significant increase in eosinophil cationic protein levels after challenge with the control (P = 0.01) and active agent (P = 0.02) was observed in the late phase after challenge. No significant changes in nasal levels of neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, and interleukin-8 were observed on both control and active challenge days. Our results suggest a predominant nasal eosinophilic inflammatory response after occupational allergen challenge.
"Riechelmann et al. (25) reported IL-1β concentrations of 15±13 pg/ml in healthy non-smoking volunteers (aged 18-60 years); in the current study, we observed IL-1β concentrations that were 50% lower. However, the IL-8 concentrations in the NLF samples in the present study were ten-fold greater than those in volunteers with occupational rhinitis (mean IL-8 concentrations of ∼27 pg/ml) (33). In agreement with this finding, other reports have shown direct associations between exposure to PM2,5 and nasal inflammation (34) as well as increases in IL-8 production in the airways of healthy individuals after acute exposure to diesel exhaust (35). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution.
A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study).
Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively). Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers.
The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Work-related rhinitis is a common disease in many working groups, frequently associated with asthma. The purpose of this review is to summarize the specific literature published within the past 12 months, to discuss the diagnostic workup and to illustrate the medicolegal aspects pertaining to this disease.
Recently, there has been a growing scientific interest in work-related rhinitis, which includes both occupational rhinitis and work-exacerbated rhinitis. The epidemiological relevance and the relationships to asthma have been evaluated. New etiologic agents and populations at risk have been identified. A new definition and classification, and a diagnostic algorithm, have been proposed.
In consideration of the epidemiological relevance and of the medicolegal implications, occupational rhinitis should be considered in daily clinical practice by all physicians. In adults with late-onset rhinitis, occupational causes should be queried and patients in whom an occupational association is suspected should be referred for specific assessments.
Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery 02/2011; 19(1):36-42. DOI:10.1097/MOO.0b013e328341e228 · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eosinophil granulocyte myeloid cells are increased in atopic and nonatopic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and atopic keratoconjunctivitis, diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Eosinophils contain several basic granule proteins, the best known being the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). ECP is a cytotoxic, pro-fibrotic ribonuclease, which is found deposited in these eosinophil-related diseases and is often used in parallel with blood eosinophilia to monitor those diseases. The contribution of eosinophils and their granule proteins to disease pathogenesis have been debated; recent findings might bring these cells to the center of attention.
Novel mediators of atopic disease, interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-33 have been found in the upper respiratory tract. These cytokines stimulate eosinophils to survival and degranulation, IL-17 via granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-33 directly. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has been found in CRS and atopic keratoconjunctivitis mucosa, its production possibly stimulated by ECP. ECP is detected in nasal mucosa of local allergic reactions, entopy, in rhinitis and CRS. ECP might be released from freely circulating eosinophil granules or in association with eosinophil mitochondrial DNA, both means of release for pathogen defence.
Novel evidence suggests that eosinophils and ECP might have new prominent roles in development of diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 12/2011; 12(1):18-23. DOI:10.1097/ACI.0b013e32834eccaf · 3.57 Impact Factor
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