Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM.
"The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were obtained for the broth microdilution testing performed in accordance with the guidelines from the CLSI M27-A2 document (NCCLS, 2002). The assays with P. brasiliensis were performed according to the described methods (Johann et al., 2010). Amphotericin B and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole were included as positive antifungal controls, and the stock solutions were prepared in dimethylsulfoxide and water, respectively . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, 9-hydroxy-folianin and sucrose octaacetate were isolated from the seed ethanol extract of Annona cornifolia A. St. -Hil. (Annonaceae). We found that 9-hydroxy-folianin was able to inhibit several clinical strains of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 9-hydroxy-folianin against twelve clinical strains of P. brasiliensis were found to be in the range between 3.4 and 27.7μg mL−1 and were much more potent than the commercial antifungal trimethropin-sulfamethoxazole. P. brasiliensis isolates (Pb-18, Pb-11, Pb-01, Pb-B339, Pb-8 and Pb-18 virulent) were also susceptible to sucrose octaacetate. The growth of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus gattii were not affected by these compounds. Sucrose octaacetate and 9-hydroxy-folianin showed no effects with amphotericin B and trimethropin-sulfamethoxazole, but they displayed a synergetic effect with itraconazole.
Food Research International 08/2011; 44(7):2283-2288. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2010.11.030 · 2.82 Impact Factor
"This extract was then partitioned between water and, successively, with hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate, resulting in 1.4 g of an hexane fraction (HEX-L), 5.0 g of a dichloromethane fraction (DCM-L), and 6.6 g of the ethyl acetate fraction (EA-L), and 15.2 g of the aqueous fraction (AQ-L). The plant stems (250 g) were submitted to the same procedure resulting in 1.0 g (HEX-S), 3.2 g (DCM-S), 0.8 g (EA-S), and 4.8 g (AQ-S) fractions, respectively [13,8]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the antifungal compounds from the extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) against clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
The hexane and dichlomethane fractions from leaves and stems of S. terebinthifolius were fractionated using several chromatography techniques to afford four compounds.
The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were identified as schinol (1), a new biphenyl compound, namely, 4'-ethyl-4-methyl-2,2',6,6'-tetrahydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dicarboxylate (2), quercetin (3), and kaempferol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 were active against different strains of P. brasiliensis, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration value against the isolate Pb B339 of 15.6 μg/ml. The isolate Pb 1578 was more sensitive to compound 1 with a MIC value of 7.5 μg/ml. Schinol presented synergistic effect only when combined with itraconazole. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were not able to inhibit cell wall synthesis or assembly using the sorbitol assay.
This work reveals for the first time the occurrence of compound 2 and discloses activity of compounds 1 and 2 against several clinical isolates of P. brasiliensis. These results justify further studies to clarify the mechanisms of action of these compounds.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 10/2010; 9(1):30. DOI:10.1186/1476-0711-9-30 · 2.19 Impact Factor
"The treatment of this mycosis is long (1-2 years) or even more. Johann et al. (2010) studying the activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus that causes this mycosis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, reported that the hexane fraction from stems of P. granatum exhibited better antifungal activity against the three clinical isolated than other parts of the plant or other fractions of the same plant. Nevertheless other extracts of plants revealed to be significantly more effective against that fungus than P. granatum. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., which can be found throughout the Mediterranean region, in Southeast Asia, California and Arizona in USA was in ancient times referred as possessing powers of fertility, abundance and good luck (fruit). The biological properties of extracts (antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, among other properties) obtained from several parts of pomegranate is reported in the present work. Due to such properties, the extracts have been used in therapeutics, such as in the prevention of infection, inflammation, cancer, among other applications. However, other aspects are also referred in the present work such as the good practices of culture and fruit preservation, search of new compounds, selection of cultivars through biotechnological techniques for obtaining juice or fruits ready to eat. Such compilation of information was based on the search in the ISI Web of Knowledge (Thomson Reuters) from 2009 up to the beginning of October 2010.
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