Clarithromycin (Biaxin)-lenalidomide-low-dose dexamethasone (BiRd) versus lenalidomide-low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) for newly diagnosed myeloma

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
American Journal of Hematology (Impact Factor: 3.8). 09/2010; 85(9):664-9. DOI: 10.1002/ajh.21777
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this case-matched study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of the addition of clarithromycin (Biaxin) to lenalidomide/low-dose dexamethasone (BiRd) vs. lenalidomide/low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) for newly diagnosed myeloma. Data from 72 patients treated at the New York Presbyterian Hospital-Cornell Medical Center were retrospectively compared with an equal number of matched pair mates selected among patients seen at the Mayo Clinic who received Rd. Case matching was blinded and was performed according to age, gender, and transplant status. On intention-to-treat analysis, complete response (45.8% vs. 13.9%, P < 0.001) and very-good-partial-response or better (73.6% vs. 33.3%, P < 0.001) were significantly higher with BiRd. Time-to-progression (median 48.3 vs. 27.5 months, P = 0.071), and progression-free survival (median 48.3 vs. 27.5 months, P = 0.044) were higher with BiRd. There was a trend toward better OS with BiRd (3-year OS: 89.7% vs. 73.0%, P = 0.170). Main grade 3-4 toxicities of BiRd were hematological, in particular thrombocytopenia (23.6% vs. 8.3%, P = 0.012). Infections (16.7% vs. 9.7%, P = 0.218) and dermatological toxicity (12.5% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.129) were higher with Rd. Results of this case-matched analysis suggest that there is significant additive value when clarithromycin is added to Rd. Randomized phase III trials are needed to confirm these results.

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Available from: Shaji K Kumar, Dec 12, 2014
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    • "Therefore, enhanced cytotoxicity could be explained in terms of loading excess ER-stress in CML cells. Interestingly, BiRD therapy consisting of Baixin (CAM), Revlimid (lenalidomide) and dexamethasone resulted in high complete and overall response rates in MM, although the molecular mechanism for using CAM was not clarified (46,47). CAM has immunomodulatory properties, partially mediated by the suppression of interleukin-6 and other inflammatory cytokines. "
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    ABSTRACT: The specific 26S proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZ) potently induces autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines (U266, IM-9 and RPMI8226). The macrolide antibiotics including concanamycin A, erythromycin (EM), clarithromycin (CAM) and azithromycin (AZM) all blocked autophagy flux, as assessed by intracellular accumulation of LC3B-II and p62. Combined treatment of BZ and CAM or AZM enhanced cytotoxicity in MM cell lines, although treatment with either CAM or AZM alone exhibited almost no cytotoxicity. This combination also substantially enhanced aggresome formation, intracellular ubiquitinated proteins and induced the proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP (CADD153). Expression levels of the proapoptotic genes transcriptionally regulated by CHOP (BIM, BAX, DR5 and TRB3) were all enhanced by combined treatment with BZ plus CAM, compared with treatment with each reagent alone. Like the MM cell lines, the CHOP+/+ murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell line exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity and upregulation of CHOP and its transcriptional targets with a combination of BZ and one of the macrolides. In contrast, CHOP-/- MEF cells exhibited resistance against BZ and almost completely canceled enhanced cytotoxicity with a combination of BZ and a macrolide. These data suggest that ER stress-mediated CHOP induction is involved in pronounced cytotoxicity. Simultaneously targeting two major intracellular protein degradation systems such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system by BZ and the autophagy-lysosome system by a macrolide antibiotic enhances ER stress-mediated apoptosis in MM cells. This result suggests the therapeutic possibility of using a macrolide antibiotic with a proteasome inhibitor for MM therapy.
    International Journal of Oncology 03/2013; 42(5). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2013.1870 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Furthermore, clinical experience with lenalidomide indicates that early use in MM therapy is associated with a higher response rate and, possibly, prolonged survival [30]. To further improve the outcome of lenalidomide, combination regimens (BiRd, VRD, RAD, VDCR, and VRDD) [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] have been evaluated or are under investigation in both old and young MM patients, in transplant and non transplant settings. MM has been chosen for this article with the purpose of showing our current knowledge on the mechanisms of antitumor activity of lenalidomide. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lenalidomide is a synthetic compound derived by modifying the chemical structure of thalidomide. It belongs to the second generation of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) and possesses pleiotropic properties. Even if lenalidomide has been shown to be active in the treatment of several hematologic malignancies, this review article is mostly focalized on its mode of action in multiple myeloma. The present paper is about the direct and indirect antitumor effects of lenalidomide on malignant plasmacells, bone marrow microenvironment, bone resorption and host's immune response. The molecular mechanisms and targets of lenalidomide remain largely unknown, but recent evidence shows cereblon (CRBN) as a possible mediator of its therapeutical effects.
    Advances in Hematology 08/2012; 2012(4):842945. DOI:10.1155/2012/842945
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    • "A case-matched study compared clarithromycin-lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (BiRd) with Rd as initial therapy for newly diagnosed MM patients [15]. Seventy-two patients treated with either BiRd or Rd were included in this retrospective analysis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic malignancy. It accounts for 20,580 new cancer cases in the USA in 2009, including 11,680 cases in men, 8,900 cases in women, and 10,580 deaths overall. Although the disease remains still incurable, outcomes have improved substantially over recent years thanks to the use of high-dose therapy and the availability of novel agents, such as the immunomodulatory drugs thalidomide and lenalidomide, and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Various trials have shown the advantages linked to the use of novel agents in the transplant and not-transplant settings. In particular, this paper will present an overview of the results achieved with lenalidomide-containing combinations in patients eligible for high-dose therapies, namely, young patients. The advantages obtained should always be outweighed with the toxicity profile associated with the regimen used. Therefore, here, we will also provide a description of the main adverse events associated with lenalidomide and its combination.
    Advances in Hematology 07/2012; 2012:906247. DOI:10.1155/2012/906247
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