Metabonomic studies on human hepatocyte in primary culture.
ABSTRACT Mechanisms involved in induction processes have been investigated using fresh human hepatocytes in culture as a cellular model and using mass spectrometry-based metabonomics as a global investigation tool. Sample preparation to data analysis have been detailed in an approach enabling to separate drug-induced (endogenous metabolites) and drug-related (drug metabolites) biomarkers for reference inducers. Rifampicin, a nuclear pregnane X receptor (PXR) ligand; CITCO, a nuclear constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) ligand; and phenobarbital, which activates both CAR and PXR, have been used. Specific intra-cellular metabolites have been isolated for rifampicin and CITCO as potential endogenous biomarkers of their respective induction mechanism. A mixture of these two types of biomarkers modified in the same way after treatment with either rifampicin or CITCO on the one hand and with phenobarbital on the other hand has been found.