Trans fatty acids and weight gain.

Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK.
International journal of obesity (2005) (Impact Factor: 5.22). 03/2011; 35(3):315-24. DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2010.141
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Increasing rates of obesity have stimulated research into possible contributing factors, including specific dietary components such as trans fatty acids (TFAs). This review considers the evidence for an association between TFA intake and weight gain. It concludes that there is limited but consistent evidence from epidemiological studies, and from a primate model, that increased TFA consumption may result in a small additional weight gain. Data from a long-term study in a primate model suggest that TFA may have a greater adipogenic effect than cis monounsaturated fatty acids; however, there are currently inadequate mechanistic data to provide a comprehensive and plausible explanation for any such metabolic differences between the types of fatty acids.

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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that the intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) plays a role in the development of obesity. The proportions of adipose tissue fatty acids not synthesised endogenously in humans, such as TFA, usually correlate well with the dietary intake. Hence, the use of these biomarkers may provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than that obtained with dietary questionnaires. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC). The relative content of fatty acids in adipose tissue biopsies from a random sample of 996 men and women aged 50-64 years drawn from a Danish cohort study was determined by GC. Baseline data on weight, WC and potential confounders were available together with information on weight and WC 5 years after enrolment. The exposure measures were total trans-octadecenoic acids (18 : 1t), 18 : 1 Δ6-10t, vaccenic acid (18 : 1 Δ11t) and rumenic acid (18 : 2 Δ9c, 11t). Data were analysed using multiple regression with cubic spline modelling. The median proportion of total adipose tissue 18 : 1t was 1·52 % (90 % central range 0·98, 2·19) in men and 1·47 % (1·01, 2·19) in women. No significant associations were observed between the proportions of total 18 : 1t, 18 : 1 Δ6-10t, vaccenic acid or rumenic acid and changes in weight or WC. The present study suggests that the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue are not associated with subsequent changes in weight or WC within the exposure range observed in this population.
    The British journal of nutrition 11/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Compelling evidence indicates that consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few validated tools for TFA intake assessment are available in Korea. We aimed to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) estimating usual intake of TFA in Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS: Eighty-two healthy adults completed an FFQ with a 3-day diet record (3DDR), and 58 completed a second FFQ at a 1-month interval. To assess the reproducibility of the FFQ, we compared estimated TFA intakes from each FFQ. To assess the validity, we compared estimates from the FFQ with those from the 3DDR. RESULTS: The FFQ was reproducible (Spearman r = 0.71) and provided modest correlations with the 3DDR (Spearman r = 0.38). After adjustment for total energy intake, the correlations increased (r = 0.45). Measurement-error correction also de-attenuated the correlations (r = 0.57). When quintiles of the FFQ and 3DDR were joint-classified, 9% on average were misclassified into extreme quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the developed FFQ is reproducible and reasonably valid in categorizing individuals according to TFA intakes among healthy young and middle aged adults in Korea.
    Nutrition research and practice 11/2014; 9(1). · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the status in selected saturated (SFAs) and monounsaturated (MUFAs) fatty acids and the Stiffness Index (SI) in Inuit women from Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada). Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Inuit population from 14 communities who participated to Qanuippitaa? How are we? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Participants: 187 Inuit women aged 35-72 years. Measurements: SI was determined by ultrasonography (Achilles InSight device) at the right calcaneus of participants. SFAs and MUFAs contents of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids were measured after transmethylation by gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector. Several factors known to be associated with bone strength were concomitantly recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate relations between selected SFAs, MUFAs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders and covariates. Results: Total SFAs, in particular behenic acid, and cis-vaccenic acid among MUFAs were negatively associated with SI (β = -0.028, SE = 0.011, p = 0.0084; β = -0.060, SE = 0.023, p = 0.0093 and β = -0.087, SE = 0.019, p <0.0001, respectively), whereas total cis-MUFAs and specifically oleic acid were positively associated with SI (β = 0.036, SE = 0.011, p = 0.0008; β = 0.037, SE = 0.011, p = 0.0014, respectively) after adjustment for several covariates. Conclusion: Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid status is associated with bone strength estimated by calcaneal SI values in Inuit women from Nunavik.
    The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 08/2014; 18(7):663-671. · 2.39 Impact Factor

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