Inflammation Dysregulates Notch Signaling In Endothelial Cells: Implication Of Notch2 And Notch4 To Endothelial Dysfunction

INSERM, U643, Nantes F44000, France.
Biochemical pharmacology (Impact Factor: 5.01). 12/2010; 80(12):2032-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.07.010
Source: PubMed


Although the involvement of the Notch pathway in several areas of vascular biology is now clearly established, its role in vascular inflammation at the endothelial level remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that pro-inflammatory cytokines drive a specific regulation of the Notch pathway in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). In arterial ECs, TNFα strongly modulates the pattern of Notch expression by decreasing Notch4 expression while increasing Notch2 expression. Changes in Notch expression were associated with a reduction in hes1 and hey2 expression and in CBF1 reporter gene activity, suggesting that TNFα regulates both Notch expression and activity. Notch2 and Notch4 regulations occurred independently and were found to be mostly mediated by the NFκB signaling pathways and PI3-kinase signaling pathways, respectively. Functionally, TNF-mediated Notch regulation promotes caspase-dependent EC apoptosis. Finally, our findings confirmed that dysregulated Notch signaling also occurs upon inflammation in vivo and correlates with caspase activation and apoptosis. In conclusion, inflammatory cytokines elicit a switch in Notch expression characterized by Notch2 predominance over Notch4 leading to a reduced Notch activity and promoting apoptosis. Thus, here we provide evidence for a role of soluble mediators of inflammation (i.e. cytokines) in the regulation of Notch signaling and for the implication of a dysregulated Notch pathway to endothelial and vascular dysfunction.

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Available from: Béatrice Charreau, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "A large number of studies have shown Notch involvement in endothelial cell activation, apoptosis and proliferation. While the effects of various mediators of cell growth or cell activation on Notch pathway in endothelial cells have been well characterized [36] [37], less is known on how estrogens affect Notch in the endothelium. "
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogens play a protective role in coronary artery disease. The mechanisms of action are still poorly understood, although a role for estrogens in stimulation of angiogenesis has been suggested. In several cell types, estrogens modulate the Notch pathway, which is involved in controlling angiogenesis downstream of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). The goal of our study was to establish whether estrogens modulate Notch activity in endothelial cells and the possible consequences on angiogenesis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and the effects on Notch signalling were evaluated. E2 increased Notch1 processing as indicated by i) decreased levels of Notch1 transmembrane subunit ii) increased amount of Notch1 in nuclei iii) unaffected level of mRNA. Similarly, E2 increased the levels of the active form of Notch4 without altering Notch4 mRNA. Conversely, protein and mRNA levels of Notch2 were both reduced suggesting transcriptional repression of Notch2 by E2. Under conditions where Notch was activated by upregulation of Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) following VEGF-A treatment, E2 caused a further increase of the active form of Notch1, of the number of cells with nuclear Notch1 and of Hey2 mRNA. Estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182.780 antagonized these effects suggesting that E2 modulation of Notch1 is mediated by estrogen receptors. E2 treatment abolished the increase in endothelial cells sprouting caused by Notch inhibition in a tube formation assay on 3D Matrigel and in mouse aortic ring explants. In conclusion, E2 affects several Notch pathway components in HUVECs, leading to an activation of the VEGF-A-Dll4-Notch1 axis and to a modulation of vascular branching when Notch signalling is inhibited. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular protection exerted by estrogens by uncovering a novel role of E2 in the Notch signalling-mediated modulation of angiogenesis.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71440. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071440 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "TNFα-mediated Notch inhibition is associated with endothelial cells apoptosis, as shown by caspase 3 activation in endothelial cells of lung sections from rats treated with TNFα. [45]. Since overexpression of Notch2 in endothelial cells decreases the levels of survivin, a key antiapoptotic factor, it has been suggested that TNFα signaling sensitizes endothelial cells to apoptosis by activating Notch2 and thus decreasing Notch activity [46]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-angiogenesis agents and the identification of cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are opening new avenues for targeted cancer therapy. Recent evidence indicates that angiogenesis regulatory pathways and developmental pathways that control CSC fate are intimately connected, and that endothelial cells are a key component of the CSC niche. Numerous anti-angiogenic therapies developed so far target the VEGF pathway. However, VEGF-targeted therapy is hindered by clinical resistance and side effects, and new approaches are needed. One such approach may be direct targeting of tumor endothelial cell fate determination. Interfering with tumor endothelial cells growth and survival could inhibit not only angiogenesis but also the self-replication of CSC, which relies on signals from surrounding endothelial cells in the tumor microenvironment. The Notch pathway is central to controlling cell fate both during angiogenesis and in CSC from several tumors. A number of investigational Notch inhibitors are being developed. Understanding how Notch interacts with other factors that control endothelial cell functions and angiogenesis in cancers could pave the way to innovative therapeutic strategies that simultaneously target angiogenesis and CSC.
    Vascular Cell 04/2012; 4(1):7. DOI:10.1186/2045-824X-4-7
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the regulation of CD4(+)CD25(+) Regulatory T cells (Tregs) on pro-inflammatory adhesion molecules, Krüppel-Like Factor-2 (KLF-2) and its downstream transcriptional targets in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) impaired by ox-LDL and the mechanisms of it. HUVECs were cultured in the continuous presence of ox-LDL(0 mg/L,25 mg/L,50 mg/L,100 mg/L) for 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours to allow identification of early-and late-induced genes, respectively, whereas non-stimulated controls were taken at 0 hours. The expression of pro-inflammatory adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin, KLF-2 and its target genes eNOS, PAI-1 were determined by real time RT-PCR and/or western-blot analysis. Expression of pro-inflammatory adhesion molecules, KLF-2, eNOS and PAI-1 in HUVEC cultured alone or with anti-CD3 mAbs activated Tregs, followed by addition of ox-LDL (50 mg/L) for 6 hours, are compared to expression levels in control cultures. Ox-LDL treated HUVECs increased pro-inflammatory adhesion molecules expression, as well as increased PAI-1 but decreased eNOS expression accompanied with significant downregulating of KLF-2 at a dose and time dependent manner. Furthermore, ox-LDL increased pro-inflammatory adhesion molecules but inhibited KLF2 expression was reversed by addition of Tregs. Small interfering RNA reduced endogenous KLF-2 expression and partly reversed the suppressive effect of Tregs on HUVECs activation, which strongly implicate KLF-2 as a transcriptional regulator of the Tregs-mediated effects in endothelial cells. Mechanism studies reveal that Treg-mediated KLF2 expression in HUVECs impaired by ox-LDL requires cell contact as well as soluble factors. Tregs could protect endothelial function that is largely dependent on KLF2 and its downstream transcriptional targets regulation involving cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors.
    Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2011; 28(4):639-48. DOI:10.1159/000335759 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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