Adequacy of a Single 24-Hour Urine Collection for Metabolic Evaluation of Recurrent Nephrolithiasis

Department of Urology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.
The Journal of urology (Impact Factor: 4.47). 08/2010; 184(2):579-83. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2010.03.129
Source: PubMed


There is much debate about whether 1 or 2, 24-hour urinalyses are adequate for metabolic evaluation of stone formers. We determined whether repeat 24-hour urine collection provides information similar to that of the initial 24-hour urine collection and whether repeat collection is necessary.
We analyzed 2, 24-hour urine collections in 777 patients obtained from 2001 to 2005. Samples were collected 3 days or less apart before pharmacological intervention and analyzed elsewhere for routine stone risk profiles of urine calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, ammonium, chloride, urea nitrogen and creatinine.
No parameters showed a statistically significant difference between 24-hour urine samples 1 and 2 when mean values were compared (pairwise t test each p >0.05, range 0.06 to 0.87). Using Pearson's correlation all parameters showed positive correlation coefficients (r = 0.68 to 0.89, each p <0.0001). The mean of individual patient differences in samples 1 and 2 were compared to 0 and 6 of 12 showed no difference (p >0.05) while for the remaining 6 p value was <0.05. The percent difference was 0.5% to 4.19% for all urinary parameters.
One 24-hour urine sample is sufficient for metabolic evaluation of recurrent stone disease. There is no significant difference in 12 urinary parameters between 24-hour urine samples collected within 3 days of each other. This information is useful to providers and may decrease patient inconvenience and the overall cost of metabolic stone evaluation.

36 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Once again the question of one versus two 24 h urine collections for diagnosis in kidney stone prevention has been raised. As in all previous studies, no difference is seen in the mean levels of analytes between first and second collections. However, variation within patients is so marked that at least two collections are needed for confidence.
    Nature Reviews Urology 09/2010; 7(9):483-5. DOI:10.1038/nrurol.2010.138 · 4.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although pediatricians are frequently confronted with patients presenting urolithiasis symptoms without obvious stones, the syndrome of occult urolithiasis may be still viewed with some skepticism. We have compared the clinical and metabolic features of 197 children with obvious calculi, 189 with microcalculi (diameter ā‰¤ 3 mm based on renal sonography), and 114 with symptoms of urolithiasis and normal renal sonography findings. Only microcalculi and normal sonography subjects with a urinary abnormality potentially leading to urolithiasis were included in the study. Age at presentation increased significantly (pā€‰=ā€‰0.0001) in the groups in the order normal sonography to microcalculi to calculi groups. There was no significant difference among the three groups in terms of family history of urolithiasis, gender distribution, and degree of hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria, hyperoxaluria, or hypocitraturia. The average frequency of pain attacks of patients with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) ranged from 3.6 to 4.6 days of pain per month among the three groups, which is four to ninefold lower than that reported for children with functional or organic gastrointestinal RAP. The consistency of many clinical and urinary metabolic characteristics indicates a common underlying disorder in overt and occult urolithiasis. The increase of age at presentation from the normal sonography to microcalculi and calculi groups may reflect progressive crystal accretion leading ultimately to overt stone formation.
    Pediatric Nephrology 06/2011; 27(1):101-7. DOI:10.1007/s00467-011-1940-8 · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current Canadian Urological Association (CUA) guideline recommends two 24-hour urine collections in the metabolic evaluation for patients with urolithiasis. The aim of the present study was to compare two consecutive 24-hour urine collections in patients with a history of urolithiasis presenting to a tertiary stone clinic. We retrospectively reviewed 188 patients who had two 24-hour collections upon presentation between January 2010 and December 2010. Samples were collected on consecutive days and examined for the following 11 urinary parameters: volume, creatinine, sodium, calcium, uric acid, citrate, oxalate, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium and urea nitrogen. For each parameter, the absolute value of the difference between the two samples rather than the direct difference was compared with zero. Similarly, the percent difference between samples was calculated for each parameter. The means of the absolute differences between the two samples were significantly different for all 11 urinary parameters (p < 0.0001). The percent differences for all urinary parameters ranged from 20.5% to 34.2%. Furthermore, 17.1% to 47.6% of patients had a change from a value within normal limits to an abnormal value, or vice-versa. Significance was maintained when patients with incomplete or over-collections were excluded. Significant variations among the two 24-hour urine collections were observed in all of the 11 urinary parameters analyzed. This variation may change clinical decision-making in up to 47.6% of patients if only a single 24-hour urine collection is obtained. The present study supports the CUA guideline of performing two 24-hour urine collections.
    Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada 02/2012; 6(1):30-3. DOI:10.5489/cuaj.11131 · 1.92 Impact Factor
Show more