Cardiomyocytic apoptosis limited by bradykinin via restoration of nitric oxide after cardioplegic arrest.
ABSTRACT Our previous studies revealed that cardioplegia-induced cardiac arrest under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) decreased cardiomyocytic nitric oxide and increased apoptosis. We hypothesized that pretreatment with bradykinin (BK) would improve the profile of anti-apoptotic proteins and inhibit cardiomyocytic apoptosis.
New Zealand white rabbits received total CPB. Rabbits were weaned from CPB and reperfused for 4 h. Blood was sampled at various time points. Bradykinin and/or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors or BK-receptor antagonists were infused systemically 30 min before beginning of CPB, and continued throughout the procedure. The ascending aorta was cross-clamped for 60 min while cold crystalloid cardioplegic solution was intermittently infused into the aortic root. The hearts were harvested and studied for evidence of apoptosis and ischemia/reperfusion induced inflammation-related cytokine production by cardiomyocytes.
Our results revealed that bradykinin supplementation during cardioplegia could prevent I/R-induced inflammatory and apoptotic effects, which could be reversed with a NOS inhibitor. BK antagonists and NOS inhibitors worsened the inflammatory and apoptotic responses of cardiomyocytes, which could be reversed with an exogenous NO donor.
Restoring the NO concentration after cardioplegia-induced cardiac arrest (CCA) under CPB with bradykinin could modulate (1) the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, (2) the plasma levels of inflammation-related cytokines, (3) the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and (4) the occurrence of apoptosis. Exogenous bradykinin administration was associated with the myocardial apoptotic response by inhibition of NF-kappaB translocation, inflammatory cytokine production, Akt activation, and elevation of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio via a NO-mediated pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cardiac global ischemia and reperfusion, pro-inflammatory cytokines are activated and cause cardiomyocytic injury. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB is involved in regulating inflammatory signal transduction. Curcumin inhibits NF-kappaB activation and blocks the inflammatory responses. We studied whether curcumin could decrease myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury with cardioplegia during CPB and attenuate the appearance of apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Rabbits received normal saline (group 1) or curcumin (70 mum/kg, group 2; 100 mum/kg, group 3) injection 2 h before CPB. Total CPB was initiated and cold (4 degrees C) antegrade intermittent crystalloid cardioplegia was delivered every 20 min for 60 min of cardiac arrest. Rabbits were weaned from CPB and reperfused for 4 h. Blood was sampled at various time points and then the reperfused hearts were harvested. Postoperative elevation of plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-8 (14.5, 0.9, 2.9 times over baseline in groups 1-3, respectively, P < 0.05), IL-10 (201.1, 6.0, 14.9 times over baseline in groups 1-3, respectively, P < 0.05), TNF-alpha (9.4, 3.1, 3.9 times over baseline in groups 1-3, respectively, P < 0.05), and cardiac troponin I (141.2, 14.9, 15.0 times over baseline) significantly decreased in the curcumin groups. Appearance of apoptotic cardiomyocytes significantly decreased in the curcumin groups (5.69 +/- 1.64, 1.51 +/- 0.41, 2.43 +/- 0.49 per 1000 nuclei in groups 1-3, respectively, P < 0.01). The activation of neutrophil in the myocardium, which was measured using myocardial myloperoxidase activity assay, was significantly attenuated in the curcumin group. There was a significant increase in apoptosis-related cleavage fragments of caspase-3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in group 1 compared to the other groups. Curcumin, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB, ameliorated the surge of pro-inflammatory cytokines during CPB and decreased the occurrence of cardiomyocytic apoptosis after global cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury.Journal of Surgical Research 06/2005; 125(1):109-16. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent evidence from cultured endothelial cell studies suggests that phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through the PI3-kinase-Akt pathway increases NO production. This study was designed to elucidate the signaling pathway involved in the antiapoptotic effect of insulin in vivo and to test the hypothesis that phosphorylation of eNOS by insulin may participate in the cardioprotective effect of insulin after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 30 minutes of myocardial ischemia and 4 hours of reperfusion. Rats were randomized to receive vehicle, insulin, insulin plus wortmannin, or insulin plus L-NAME. Treatment with insulin resulted in 2.6-fold and 4.3-fold increases in Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and a significant increase in NO production in ischemic/reperfused myocardial tissue. Phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS and increase of NO production by insulin were completely blocked by wortmannin, a PI3-kinase inhibitor. Pretreatment with L-NAME, a nonselective NOS inhibitor, had no effect on Akt and eNOS phosphorylation but significantly reduced NO production. Moreover, treatment with insulin markedly reduced myocardial apoptotic death (P<0.01 versus vehicle). Pretreatment with wortmannin abolished the antiapoptotic effect of insulin. Most importantly, pretreatment with L-NAME also significantly reduced the antiapoptotic effect of insulin (P<0.01 versus insulin). These results demonstrated that in vivo administration of insulin activated Akt through the PI3-kinase-dependent mechanism and reduced postischemic myocardial apoptotic death. Phosphorylation of eNOS and the concurrent increase of NO production contribute significantly to the antiapoptotic effect of insulin.Circulation 04/2002; 105(12):1497-502. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apoptosis or programed cell death is a continuous process of destruction of nonfunctional cells. It is a physiologic process whereby the body disposes of unwanted cells by self-destruction and is our utmost defense against damaged cells. There are several pathways leading to programed cell death. Apoptosis is seen in failing, infarcted, and hibernating human hearts, and during open heart surgery. Apoptosis appears to be induced by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and this is reduced by ischemic preconditioning. Antiapoptotic interventions may be a future target for myocardial protection.The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 03/2003; 75(2):S656-60. · 3.45 Impact Factor