Expression in the mammalian retina of parkin and UCH-L1, two components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

Departamento de Fisiología, Genética y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain.
Brain research (Impact Factor: 2.83). 09/2010; 1352:70-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.07.019
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) functions as a major degradation pathway for misfolded and damaged proteins with an important neuroprotective role in the CNS against a variety of cellular stresses. Parkin and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) are two relevant components of the UPS associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders. We here address the expression profile of parkin and UCH-L1 in the mammalian retina, with special emphasis on primates. We describe for the first time the presence of parkin in the retina of mammals, including humans. Parkin and UCH-L1 genes were expressed at the mRNA and protein levels in the retina of all species examined. The immunolocalization pattern of parkin was quite widespread, being expressed by most retinal neuronal types, including photoreceptors. UCH-L1 was localized to horizontal cells and specific subtypes of bipolar and amacrine cells, as well as to ganglion cells and their axons forming the nerve fiber layer. In rodents no UCH-L1 immunoreactivity was found in cone or rod photoreceptors, whereas this protein was present along the whole length of cones in all other mammals. Remarkably, UCH-L1 was expressed by dopaminergic amacrine cells of primates. The ample distribution of parkin and UCH-L1 in the mammalian retina, together with the crucial role played by the UPS in normal neuronal physiology in the brain, points to a participation of these two proteins in the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway of protein degradation in most retinal cell types, where they could exert a protective function against neuronal stress.


Available from: Julian Esteve-Rudd, Mar 10, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the only afferent neurons that can transmit visual information to the brain. The death of RGCs occurs in the early stages of glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and many other retinal diseases. Autophagy is a highly conserved lysosomal pathway, which is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis and cell survival under stressful conditions. Research has established that autophagy exists in RGCs after increasing intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ischemia, optic nerve transection (ONT), axotomy, or optic nerve crush. However, the mechanism responsible for defining how autophagy is induced in RGCs has not been elucidated. Accumulating data has pointed to an essential role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the activation of autophagy. RGCs have long axons with comparatively high densities of mitochondria. This makes them more sensitive to energy deficiency and vulnerable to oxidative stress. In this review, we explore the role of oxidative stress in the activation of autophagy in RGCs, and discuss the possible mechanisms that are involved in this process. We aim to provide a more theoretical basis of oxidative stress-induced autophagy, and provide innovative targets for therapeutic intervention in retinopathy.
    Autophagy 08/2014; 10(10). DOI:10.4161/auto.36076 · 11.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dopaminergic neurons (PC12 cells) were treated with different doses of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs), to investigate their effects on α-Synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation and their mechanism of action. Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining were performed. Exposure to TiO2-NPs increased α-Syn expression (p < 0.05) and induced dose-dependent α-Syn aggregation. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine partially inhibited α-Syn expression induced by a 200 μg/ml dose of TiO2-NPs. TiO2-NPs reduced the expressions of parkin and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase protein, and were associated with oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system also contributed to α-Syn aggregation. The potentially neurotoxic TiO2-NPs may cause Parkinson's disease.
    11/2014; DOI:10.3109/21691401.2014.980507
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Retinitis pigmentosa is a heterogeneous group of inherited neurodegenerative retinal disorders characterized by a progressive peripheral vision loss and night vision difficulties, subsequently leading to central vision impairment. Chronic microglia activation is associated with various neurodegenerative diseases including retinitis pigmentosa. The objective of this study was to quantify microglia activation in the retina of P23H rats, an animal model of retinitis pigmentosa, and to evaluate the therapeutic effects of TUDCA (tauroursodeoxycholic acid), which has been described as a neuroprotective compound.Methods For this study, homozygous P23H line 3 and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were injected weekly with TUDCA (500 mg/kg, ip) or vehicle (saline) from 20 days to 4 months old. Vertical retinal sections and whole-mount retinas were immunostained for specific markers of microglial cells (anti-CD11b, anti-Iba1 and anti-MHC-II). Microglial cell morphology was analyzed and the number of retinal microglial was quantified.ResultsMicroglial cells in the SD rat retinas were arranged in regular mosaics homogenously distributed within the plexiform and ganglion cell layers. In the P23H rat retina, microglial cells increased in number in all layers compared with control SD rat retinas, preserving the regular mosaic distribution. In addition, a large number of amoeboid CD11b-positive cells were observed in the P23H rat retina, even in the subretinal space. Retinas of TUDCA-treated P23H animals exhibited lower microglial cell number in all layers and absence of microglial cells in the subretinal space.Conclusions These results report novel TUDCA anti-inflammatory actions, with potential therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative diseases, including retinitis pigmentosa.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 10/2014; 11(1):186. DOI:10.1186/s12974-014-0186-3 · 4.90 Impact Factor